সাহায্য:আধ্বব

(সাহায্য:IPA থেকে পুনর্নির্দেশিত)
পরিচ্ছেদসমূহ: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  সহায়ক চিহ্ন 

প্রধান প্রতীকের তালিকাসম্পাদনা

The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols which do not resemble any Latin letter are placed at the end.

প্রতীক উদাহরণ বর্ণনা
A
[a] ( শুনুন) জার্মান Mann, ফরাসি gare For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
[ä] ( শুনুন) ম্যান্ডারিন 他 tā, মার্কিনি ইংরেজি father, স্পেনীয় casa, ফরাসি patte
[ɐ] ( শুনুন) RP cut, জার্মান Kaiserslautern (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written ⟨ʌ⟩.)
[ɑ] ( শুনুন) RP father, ফরাসি pâte, Dutch bad
[ɑ̃] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি Caen, sans, temps অনুনাসিক [ɑ].
[ɒ] ( শুনুন) RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
[ʌ] ( শুনুন) মার্কিনি ইংরেজি cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When ⟨ʌ⟩ is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
[æ] ( শুনুন) RP cat
B
[b] ( শুনুন) English babble
[ɓ] ( শুনুন) সোয়াহিলি bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See implosive consonants.
[β] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children", কোরীয় 무궁화 [muɡuŋβwa̠] mugunghwa Like [b], but with the lips not quite closed.
[ʙ] ( শুনুন) Nias simbi [siʙi] "lower jaw" Sputtering.
C
[c] ( শুনুন) তুর্কি kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", গ্রীক και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like হিন্দি.
[ç] ( শুনুন) জার্মান Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
[ɕ] ( শুনুন) ম্যান্ডারিন 西安 Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
[ɔ] ( শুনুন) see under O
D
[d] ( শুনুন) English dad
[ɗ] ( শুনুন) সোয়াহিলি Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
[ɖ] ( শুনুন) মার্কিনি ইংরেজি harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ð] ( শুনুন) English the, bathe
[dz] ( শুনুন) English adds, Italian zero
[] ( শুনুন) English judge
[] ( শুনুন) Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] ( শুনুন) Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
[e] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় fe; ফরাসি clé, জার্মান Klee Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
[ɘ] ( শুনুন) Australian English bird
[ə] ( শুনুন) English above, হিন্দি ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
[ɚ] ( শুনুন) মার্কিনি ইংরেজি runner
[ɛ] ( শুনুন) English bet
[ɛ̃] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি Saint-Étienne, vin, main অনুনাসিক [ɛ].
[ɜ] ( শুনুন) RP bird (long)
[ɝ] ( শুনুন) মার্কিনি ইংরেজি bird
F
[f] ( শুনুন) English fun
[ɟ] ( শুনুন) see under J
[ʄ] ( শুনুন) see under J
G
[ɡ] ( শুনুন) English gag (Should look like  . No different from a Latin "g")
[ɠ] ( শুনুন) সোয়াহিলি Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
[ɢ] ( শুনুন) Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some আরবি dialects for /q/, as in Muammar Gaddafi.
[ʒ] ( শুনুন) see under Z English beige.
H
[h] ( শুনুন) মার্কিনি ইংরেজি house
[ɦ] ( শুনুন) English ahead, when said quickly.
[ʰ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to ফরাসি or স্পেনীয় [t].
[ħ] ( শুনুন) আরবি টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
[ɥ] ( শুনুন) see under Y
[ɮ] ( শুনুন) see under L
I
[i] ( শুনুন) English sea, ফরাসি ville, স্পেনীয় Valladolid
[ɪ] ( শুনুন) English sit
[ɨ] ( শুনুন) রুশ ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
[j] ( শুনুন) English yes, hallelujah, জার্মান Junge
[ʲ] In রুশ Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
[ʝ] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
[ɟ] ( শুনুন) তুর্কি gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like হিন্দি.
[ʄ] ( শুনুন) সোয়াহিলি jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
[k] ( শুনুন) English kick, skip
L
[l] ( শুনুন) English leaf
[ɫ] ( শুনুন) English wool
রুশ малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
[ɬ] ( শুনুন) Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and Nelson Mandela's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
[ɭ] ( শুনুন) Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɺ] ( শুনুন) A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
[ɮ] ( শুনুন) Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
[m] ( শুনুন) English mime
[ɱ] ( শুনুন) English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ɯ] ( শুনুন) see under W
[ʍ] ( শুনুন) see under W
N
[n] ( শুনুন) English nun
[ŋ] ( শুনুন) English sing, Māori nga
[ɲ] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় Peña, ফরাসি champagne Rather like English canyon (/nj/ said quickly).
[ɳ] ( শুনুন) হিন্দি वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɴ] ( শুনুন) Castilian স্পেনীয় Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
[o] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় no, ফরাসি eau, জার্মান Boden Somewhat reminiscent of মার্কিনি ইংরেজি no.
[ɔ] ( শুনুন) জার্মান Oldenburg, ফরাসি Garonne
[ɔ̃] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি Lyon, son অনুনাসিক [ɔ].
[ø] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি feu, bœufs, জার্মান Goethe Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
[ɵ] ( শুনুন) Dutch hut, ফরাসি je, Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front. The Dutch vowel is often transcribed with ⟨ʏ⟩ or ⟨œ⟩, whereas the ফরাসি vowel is typically transcribed with ⟨ə⟩.
[œ] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি bœuf, seul, জার্মান Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
[œ̃] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি brun, parfum অনুনাসিক [œ].
[ɶ] ( শুনুন)
[θ] ( শুনুন) see under Others
[ɸ] ( শুনুন) see under Others
P
[p] ( শুনুন) English pip
Q
[q] ( শুনুন) আরবি টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang Qur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
[r] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Often used for other rhotics, such as English [ɹ], when there's no ambiguity.)
[ɾ] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, মার্কিনি ইংরেজি kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
[ʀ] ( শুনুন) Dutch rood and জার্মান rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of ফরাসি.
[ɽ] ( শুনুন) হিন্দি साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
[ɹ] ( শুনুন) RP borrow
[ɻ] ( শুনুন) ম্যান্ডারিন 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", মার্কিনি ইংরেজি borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
[ʁ] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি Paris, জার্মান Riemann (some dialects) Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
[s] ( শুনুন) English sass
[ʃ] ( শুনুন) English shoe
[ʂ] ( শুনুন) ম্যান্ডারিন 少林 (Shàolín), রুশ Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
[t] ( শুনুন) English tot, stop
[ʈ] ( শুনুন) হিন্দি ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ts] ( শুনুন) English cats, রুশ царь tsar
[] ( শুনুন) English church
[] ( শুনুন) ম্যান্ডারিন 北京 Běijīng ( listen), Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
[] ( শুনুন) ম্যান্ডারিন 真正 zhēnzhèng, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
[u] ( শুনুন) মার্কিনি ইংরেজি food, ফরাসি vous "you", জার্মান Schumacher
[ʊ] ( শুনুন) English foot, জার্মান Bundesrepublik
[ʉ] ( শুনুন) Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ɥ] ( শুনুন) see under Y
[ɯ] ( শুনুন) see under W
V
[v] ( শুনুন) English verve
[ʋ] ( শুনুন) হিন্দি वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some জার্মানs and রুশs for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
[ɤ] ( শুনুন) see under Y
[ɣ] ( শুনুন) see under Y
[ʌ] ( শুনুন) see under A
W
[w] ( শুনুন) English wow
[ʷ] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, as in English rain
[ʍ] ( শুনুন) what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
[ɯ] ( শুনুন) তুর্কি kayık "caïque", Scottish Gaelic gaol Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
[ɰ] ( শুনুন) স্পেনীয় agua
X
[x] ( শুনুন) Scottish English loch, জার্মান Bach, রুশ хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", স্পেনীয় joven between [k] and [h]
[χ] ( শুনুন) northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian স্পেনীয় Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back, in the throat. Some জার্মান and আরবি speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
[y] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি rue, জার্মান Bülow Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
[ʏ] ( শুনুন) জার্মান Düsseldorf Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
[ɣ] ( শুনুন) আরবি টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang ghālī and সোয়াহিলি ghali "expensive", স্পেনীয় suegro Sounds rather like ফরাসি [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
[ɤ] ( শুনুন) ম্যান্ডারিন 河南 Hénán, Scottish Gaelic taigh Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ʎ] ( শুনুন) Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
[ɥ] ( শুনুন) ফরাসি lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
Z
[z] ( শুনুন) English zoo
[ʒ] ( শুনুন) English vision, ফরাসি journal
[ʑ] ( শুনুন) old-styled রুশ позже [ˈpoʑːe] "later", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
[ʐ] ( শুনুন) রুশ жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ɮ] ( শুনুন) see under L
Others
[θ] ( শুনুন) English thigh, bath
[ɸ] ( শুনুন) 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
[ʔ] ( শুনুন) English uh-oh, Hawaii, জার্মান die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɪnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [əˈʔæpl̩].
[ʕ] ( শুনুন) আরবি টেমপ্লেট:Wikt-lang ʻarabī "আরবি" A light sound deep in the throat.
[ǀ] ( শুনুন) English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǀ], [ɡǀ], [ŋǀ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
[ǁ] ( শুনুন) English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǁ], [ɡǁ], [ŋǁ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
[ǃ] ( শুনুন) Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [kǃ], [ɡǃ], [ŋǃ].
[ʘ] ( শুনুন) ǂ’Amkoe ʘoa "two" Like a kissing sound.
[ǂ] ( শুনুন) Khoekhoe ǂgā-amǃnâ [ǂààʔám̀ᵑǃã̀ã̀] "to put in the mouth" Like an imitation of a chewing sound.

সহায়ক চিহ্নসম্পাদনা

বহু চিহ্ন বর্ণের উপরে, নিচে, আগে বা পরে যোগ করা যেতে পারে। এখানে a বর্ণের সাথে এই চিহ্নগুলিকে ব্যবহার করে দেখানো হয়েছে। সম্পূর্ণ তালিকার জন্য দেখুন আন্তর্জাতিক ধ্বনিমূলক বর্ণমালা § সহায়ক চিহ্ন

প্রতীক উদাহরণ বর্ণনা
বর্ণের উপর ব্যবহৃত চিহ্ন
[ã] French vin blanc [vɛ̃ blɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang.
[ä] Portuguese vá [vä] "go" A central vowel pronounced with the tongue position in the middle of the mouth; neither forward nor back.
বর্ণের নিচে ব্যবহৃত চিহ্ন
[a̯] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel does not form a syllable of its own, but runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].)
[n̥] English boy [b̥ɔɪ̯], doe [d̥oʊ̯]

(see also)

Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa.
[n̩] English button A consonant without a vowel. (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.)
[d̪] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
বর্ণের পাশে ব্যবহৃত চিহ্ন
[kʰ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ].
[k’] Zulu ukuza "come" Ejective. Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [tʼ pʼ qʼ tʃʼ tsʼ tɬʼ].
[aː] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc.
[aˑ] RP caught [ˈkʰɔˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɒt].)
[ˈa] pronunciation
[pɹ̥əʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]
Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ˌa] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[.] English courtship [ˈkɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break. (this is often redundant and therefore left off)

তথ্যসূত্রসম্পাদনা

বহিঃসংযোগসম্পাদনা