ব্যবহারকারী:Meena Islam/ফেদাইন যোদ্ধা

ফেদাইন (আরবি: فِدائيّين ফিদা'ঈয়ীন [fɪdaːʔɪjiːn])[note A][১] বা ফেদাইন যোদ্ধা হলো একটি রূপক, যা দ্বারা বিভিন্ন সশস্ত্র সংগঠনকে নির্দেশ করে যারা বড় কোনো অভিযানে নিজেদের উৎসর্গ করার সংকল্প করে।

ব্যুৎপত্তি সম্পাদনা

ফেদাই রূপকটি আরবি: فدائيون ফিদা'ঈয়ূন আইপিএ: [fɪdaːʔɪjuːn] থেকে নেওয়া হয়েছে, সাধারণ অর্থ: "যারা নিজেদের উৎসর্গ করে"।[১][২]

আর্মেনিয়া সম্পাদনা

আর্মেনিয়ান ফেদায়ি groups acted as irregular militia troops to defend their lands during the হামিদীয় হত্যাকাণ্ড and the সিইউপি's গণহত্যা নীতি.

মিশর সম্পাদনা

During the 1940s, a group of civilians volunteered to fight the British control of Egyptian land around the Suez Canal. The British had deployed military bases along the coast of the Suez Canal under the claim of protection. Many Egyptians viewed this as an invasion against their sovereign power over their country. While the Egyptian government didn't refuse the action, the people's leaders organized groups of Fedayeen who were trained to combat and kill British soldiers everywhere in Egypt, including the military bases. Those groups were viewed very highly among the Egyptian population. [তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]

In 1951 "mobs of "irregular self-sacrificers, or fedayeen" some "armed by the Muslim Brotherhood", attacked the British military base defending the Suez Canal Zone.[৩]

ইরিত্রিয়া সম্পাদনা

Known by the same name, they operated inside the capital city, Asmara, during the last 15–20 years of the armed struggle in Eritrea against Ethiopia. They operated secretly and eliminated people who were considered dangerous to the struggle to free Eritrea, which lasted from 1961 to 1991.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]

ইরান সম্পাদনা

Two very different groups used the name Fedayeen in recent Iranian history. Fadayan-e Islam has been described as "one of the first real Islamic fundamentalist organizations in the Muslim world". It was founded by Navab Safavi in 1946 for the purpose of demanding strict application of the sharia and assassinating those it believed to be apostates and enemies of Islam.[৪] After several successful assassinations it was suppressed in 1956 and several leading members were executed.

A Marxist-leaning activist group known as the Fedayeen (Fedayân in Persian language) was founded in 1971 and based in Tehran. Operating between 1971 and 1983, the Fedayeen carried out a number of political assassinations in the course of the struggle against the Shah, after which the group was suppressed.

In 1979 the Iranian People's Fedâi Guerrillas split from the Organization of Iranian People's Fedaian (Majority).

ইরাক সম্পাদনা

Beginning in 1995, Iraq established a paramilitary group known as the Fedayeen Saddam, loyal to the then president Saddam Hussein and the Ba'athist government. The name was chosen to imply a connection with the Palestinian Fedayeen.[৫] In July 2003, personnel records for the Fedayeen organization in Iraq were discovered in the basement of the former Fedayeen headquarters in east Baghdad near the Rasheed Air Base. At the time of the discovery, an Iraqi political party occupied the building; after an extensive cataloging process, an operation was conducted in Baghdad resulting in several individuals being detained.

নিজারি ইসমাইলি স্টেট সম্পাদনা

Hassan-i-Sabbah (circa 1050–1124),[৬][৭] who founded the Nizari Ismaili state in Persia and Syria, first coined the term to refer to the Hashshashins.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] Fidāʼīyīn is the plural of fidāʼī, which means "sacrifice." It is widely understood as "those willing to sacrifice themselves for God". The group carried out an armed struggle against the Seljuk empire.

ফিলিস্তিনি সম্পাদনা

A demolished Israeli farmhouse, after a fedayeen attack (1956).

Palestinian fedayeen are militants of a nationalist orientation from among the Palestinian people. The fedayeen made efforts to infiltrate territory in Israel in order to strike military[৮] as well as civilian[৯][১০][১১][১২][১৩][১৪][১৫] targets in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

Members of these groups were living in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank or in neighboring Lebanon and Syria. Prior to Israel's seizure of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the Six-Day War, these areas, originally destined for a Palestinian state, were under Jordanian and Egyptian occupation, respectively. After Israel's Operation Black Arrow in 1955, the Palestinian fedayeen were incorporated into an Egyptian army unit.[১৬][১৭][১৮][১৯][২০][২১][২২]

During this time (1948 – c. 1980), the word entered international usage and was frequently used in the Arab media as a synonym for great militancy.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] In the Israeli Hebrew press of this time the term (פַדַאיוּןfada'iun) had highly negative connotations and was associated with terrorism.[৮] Since the mid-1960s and the rise of more organized and specific militant groups, such as the Palestine Liberation Organization, the word has fallen out of usage, but not in the historical context.

তুরস্ক/প্রয়াত উসমানীয় সাম্রাজ্য সম্পাদনা

The Committee of Union and Progress conducted assassination campaigns and called its assassins "fedai", which according to Mehmed Selahaddin was derived from Greek filiyas elenikis desmos anton meaning "this is the tie of Greek friendship".[২৩]

Within the context of Turkish history, the term fedailer is often associated with the Late Ottoman or Early Republican irregular forces, known as: Kuva-yi Milliye.[২৪] Those most committed Unionists who would enforce the Central Committee's regime were also known as fedailer.

আরো দেখুন সম্পাদনা

টীকা সম্পাদনা

^note A Derives from the word فداء fidāʼ, which means redemption. Literally, someone who redeems himself by risking or sacrificing his life. The pronunciation varies for the first vowel, for example মিশরীয় আরবি: feˈdæːʔ, feˈdæːʔi, hence the transcription difference.

তথ্যসূত্র সম্পাদনা

  1. Tony Rea and John Wright (১৯৯৩)। The Arab-Israeli ConflictOxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 43আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-917170-5 
  2. Middle East Glossary - The Israel Project: FEDAYEE ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ২০১২-০৪-২৭ তারিখে
  3. Wawro, Geoffrey (২০১০)। Quicksand: America's Pursuit of Power in the Middle East। Penguin। আইএসবিএন 978-1101197684 
  4. Abrahamian, Ervand, A Modern History Of Iran, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p.116
  5. Seddon, David (১১ জানুয়ারি ২০১৩)। A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East। Taylor and Francis। পৃষ্ঠা 165। আইএসবিএন 9781135355616 
  6. Frischauer, Willi (১৯৭০)। "Chapter II"। The Aga Khans। The Bodley Head। পৃষ্ঠা 40। আইএসবিএন 0-370-01304-2 
  7. Daftary, Farhad; Ali-de-Unzaga, Omar। "Hasan Sabbah"। The Institute of Ismaili Studies। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০১৮-০২-০৫ 
  8. "Which Came First- Terrorism or Occupation - Major Arab Terrorist Attacks against Israelis Prior to the 1967 Six-Day War"। Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs। ৩১ মার্চ ২০০২। 
  9. Stein, Leslie (২০১৪)। The Making of Modern Israel; 1948-1967। John Wiley & Sons। পৃষ্ঠা 171–172। 
  10. Shapira, Anita (২০১২)। Israel; A History। পৃষ্ঠা 271। আইএসবিএন 9781611683530। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৩ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০১৪ 
  11. Filiu, Jean-Pierre (২০১৪)। Gaza: A History। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 92। 
  12. Aloni, Udi (২০১১)। "Samson the Non-European"। Studies in Gender and Sexuality12 (2): 124–133। এসটুসিআইডি 143362550ডিওআই:10.1080/15240657.2011.559441 
  13. Four Killed In Ambush, Vancouver Sun
  14. Byman, Daniel (২০১১)। A High Price: The Triumphs and Failures of Israeli Counterterrorism । Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 22আইএসবিএন 9780199831746। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১৪ অক্টোবর ২০১৪ 
  15. Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2004, provides the most up-to-date breakdown of the reasons for the flight
  16. Haya Regev, Dr. Avigail Oren, The operations in the 1950s, University of Tel Aviv, 1995
  17. Glubb, John Bagot. A Soldier with the Arabs. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1957. p. 289.
  18. 1948-1967- Major Terror Attacks. Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved on 2010-09-29.
  19. Which Came First- Terrorism or Occupation – Major. Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved on 2010-09-29.
  20. Remembrance Day Background. jafi.org (2005-05-15). Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  21. Fedayeen Attacks 1951–1956. jafi.org (2005-05-15). Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  22. The 1956 Sinai Campaign ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ২০০৭-১০-১৬ তারিখে. Adl.org. Retrieved on 2010-09-29.
  23. Göçek, Fatma Müge (২০১৫)। Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present and Collective Violence Against the Armenians, 1789–2009 (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। Oxford University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 195। আইএসবিএন 978-0-19-933420-9 
  24. http://www.yumuktepe.com/kurtulus-savasinda-icel-dort-ve-besinci-bolum/ KURTULUŞ SAVAŞINDA İÇEL – DÖRT VE BEŞİNCİ BÖLÜM

বহিঃসংযোগ সম্পাদনা

[[Category:Arab groups]] [[Category:Arabic words and phrases]] [[Category:Islamic terrorism]]