প্রধান মেনু খুলুন

উইকিপিডিয়া:প্রায়শ জিজ্ঞাসিত প্রশ্ন/বিদ্যালয়

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বিদ্যালয় সংক্রান্ত প্রাজিপ্র

এই প্রাজিপ্র পাতায় এমন কিছু প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেওয়া হয়েছে, যেগুলো থেকে শিক্ষক, গ্রন্থাগারিক (librarian), এবং স্কুল প্রশাসকগণ উইকিপিডিয়া সম্মন্ধে আরো তথ্য জানতে পারবেন ও শিক্ষার্থীদের জানাতে পারবেন। যদি আপনি মনে করে থাকেন যে, এটি উইকিপিডিয়ার ভার্চুয়াল শ্রেণীকক্ষ নিয়ে আলোচনার স্থান তবে অনুগ্রহপুর্বক বিদ্যালয় ও বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় প্রকল্প দেখুন। সাধারণ আরো তথ্যের জন্য দেখুন অভিভাবকদের জন্য পরামর্শ

সারসংক্ষেপসম্পাদনা

মুক্ত সোর্স (Open source), কপিলেফট, একত্রে লেখা বা (Collaborative writing), জনসাধারণের জন্য স্বেচ্ছাসেবক হিসেবে কাজ করার মতো ব্যাপারগুলি অনেক ছাত্র-ছাত্রী কাছে অপরিচিত লাগতে পারে। জনসাধারণকে সে বিষয়গুলো সম্মন্ধে অবগত ও তাঁদের ধারণা বৃদ্ধির দ্বারা, যুবসমাজকে কাজ করার জন্য উইকিপিডিয়া আহবান জানাচ্ছে। এতে উইকিপিডিয়া যেমন মানুষের আস্থা অর্জন করবে তেমনি তাঁদের জীবনেরও প্রত্যক্ষ উন্নয়ন ঘটবে।
শিক্ষার্থী ও শিক্ষকরা উইকিপিডিয়া সম্মন্ধে সচারচর যে প্রশ্নগুলো করেন তা নিয়েই নিচের প্রাজিপ্রগুলো। এখানে উইকপিডিয়ার ভবিষ্যত প্রকল্প বা অবস্থান নিয়ে কোনো আলোচনা করা হয়নি।

উইকি অর্থ কি?সম্পাদনা

উইকি শব্দটি এসেছে হাওয়াইয়ান ভাষা wiki থেকে, ঐ ভাষায় যার অর্থ "দ্রুত" বা (quick)। উইকি হচ্ছে একটি ওয়েবসাইট যা মানুষকে জানার ও অবদান রাখার সুযোগ দেয়। আরো তথ্যের জন্য উইকি পাতাটি দেখুন।

উইকিপিডিয়ার দেওয়া তথ্য কী নির্ভুল ও ভরসা করার মতো?সম্পাদনা

উইকিপিডিয়ার উদ্দেশ্য হলো এখনো পর্যন্ত যা কিছু প্রকাশিত জ্ঞানভাণ্ডার আছে তাদেরকে একত্রে সংকলন করা। কিন্তু উইকিপিডিয়া নিবন্ধের নির্ভরযোগ্যতা, তথ্যসূত্রের নির্ভরযোগ্যতা ও তথ্য সম্পাদকের সেই সূত্র বুঝে সঠিকভাবে নিজের ভাষায় সংকলন করবার ক্ষমতার উপর সীমাবদ্ধ। তাই উইকিপিডিয়ার নিবন্ধ নির্ভরযোগ্য হতেও পারে নাও হতে পারে। কোন একটি নিবন্ধ নির্ভরযোগ্য কিনা তা পাঠককে নিজের বিচারে অনুধাবন করতে হবে। তাই জন্য ছাত্রেদের স্কুলের পঠন বা অনুরূপ রীতিনৈতিক শিক্ষার পাঠক্রমে, যাচাই না করে উইকিপিডিয়া (বা অন্যান্য অনলাইন বিশ্বকোষের) তথ্য সরাসরি এবং একমাত্র সূত্র হিসাবে গ্রহণ করার কথা নয়। তথ্য খোঁজা শুরু করার জন্য প্রায়শ উইকিপিডিয়া একটি অন্যতম শ্রেষ্ঠ তথ্যসম্ভার। কিন্তু শুরুর জন্যই শ্রেষ্ঠ, শেষ কথা হিসাবে এখনো নয়, কারণ যাচাই প্রয়োজন হতে পারে।
উইকিপিডিয়া দ্রুত বর্ধনশীল এবং এর উদ্দেশ্য হল তথ্যের উত্স হিসাবে এর নির্ভরযোগ্যতা বৃদ্ধি করা। Readers are encouraged to compare articles to what they already know and improve their accuracy and detail. Articles about many of the major sciences were developed from other free or public domain encyclopedias. This provides a reliable basis upon which Wikipedia's editors could expand. Because of its growing utility, Wikipedia is cited almost daily in the press.
It is possible for a given Wikipedia article to be biased, outdated, or factually incorrect. This is true of any resource. One should always double-check the accuracy of important facts, regardless of the source. In general, popular articles are more accurate because they are read more often and therefore any errors are corrected in a more timely fashion. Wikipedia articles may also suffer from particular issues such as Western bias, but hopefully this will also improve with time. For more information, see Wikipedia:Criticisms.

কোন ব্যাপারটি একজনকে ভুল ও ভিন্নখাতী অবদান রাখা থেকে বিরত রাখে?সম্পাদনা

Wikipedia's content control mechanisms are reactive rather than preventive, and anyone can, at this very moment, go to almost any page and change the information to make it false or misleading. Although the majority of edits improve the encyclopedia, vandalism of this kind is all too frequent.
Fortunately, such deliberate errors are not allowed to linger. Hundreds of dedicated Wikipedia contributors monitor real-time edit feeds (particularly for important or controversial articles) and quickly revert inappropriate edits. Many articles are on one or more editors' personal watchlists (and major articles are on hundreds), and this provides a second layer of content control. Third, Wikipedia's huge user base is constantly analyzing and improving every article, undoing vandalism as it is found. If an anonymous or relatively new user changes a statistic or date by even a little bit, without justifying their edit, they are particularly likely to raise a red flag. If an individual continues to vandalize after being warned, then they may even be blocked from further editing.
The key to this reactive system is that Wikipedia, unlike mainstream print sources, keeps a full history of every change to every article. Nothing is ever lost, and no abuse is permanent. See Wikipedia:Edit history for more information.
All that being said, Wikipedia is certainly not perfect. A reader may have the bad luck of arriving at a page just after it has been vandalized and before it has been repaired. There have been incidents in the past where vandalism has been discovered still in place months after the fact. At any given time there is almost certainly inaccurate information somewhere in Wikipedia. It is for this reason that readers must be particularly diligent in verifying Wikipedia against its external sources, as discussed above. It is also a good idea, if you feel uncomfortable about an article, to check its history for recent bad-faith edits. If you find a piece of uncorrected vandalism, you might even decide to help future users by correcting it yourself. That's the great part of Wikipedia.

শিক্ষার্থীরা কী তাদের অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট-এ উইকিপিডিয়াকে তথ্যসূত্র হিসেবে রাখতে পারে?সম্পাদনা

কিভাবে উদ্ধৃতি বিন্যাস করতে হয় তা জানতে দেখুন উইকিপিডিয়া:উইকিপিডিয়ার উদ্ধৃতিদান
It depends on what teachers accept. The best policy for all writing is to have more than one source. Wikipedia can be an excellent starting place for further research. Teachers might ask students what they did to validate the information they learned from Wikipedia. Using a comprehensive search engine such as Google or Yahoo!, students can easily compare Wikipedia content with information from other reputable websites. Most Wikipedia articles also contain an "External links" section at the bottom, which often leads to other relevant sites. Students can compare information in Wikipedia with information in other encyclopedias or books. As a general rule, contributors to Wikipedia are encouraged to cite their sources, but, of course, not all do. For the sake of verifiability, it is advisable to cite an article that has listed its sources. Most of our better articles have sections such as "References," "Sources," "Notes," "Further reading," or "External links," which generally contain such information.
For purposes of establishing authorship and finding more sources, students may also find the articles' "History" tabs useful, as these detail every contribution — the contributor and the details of what was contributed. All of our contributors have talk pages for leaving them messages. While logged in, a toolbox link ("E-mail this user") is also visible beside the user pages of many registered contributors. Other means of contacting Wikipedians are listed at Wikipedia:Contact us.

অপ্রাপ্তবয়স্কদের জন্য কী এটি একটি নিরাপদ স্থান?সম্পাদনা

Wikipedia has similar safety issues to other equally open environments. Participation in Wikipedia requires youths to know basic Internet safety practices (which they should already know).
Wikipedia has the advantage that most communication is done in an open, public, reviewable manner (even personal talk page messages are readable by anybody). Note, however, that in contrast to some sites directed towards youth, Wikipedia does not have staff to patrol discussion pages or remove inappropriate comments; it only has volunteer administrators, who will exclude people breaching civility rules, but who will not censor conversations if they deal with adult topics.
Children and their parents must understand that any person no matter how good or ill motivated, is free to participate in the project. While some child-focused online communities will remove members who are found/suspected of being dangerous towards children in the real/offline world; Wikipedia will not remove users based on outside activities (regardless of the legality or morality of those activities). Hence, no child should ever assume that if somebody has an account on Wikipedia, then they're safe to meet in person. Wikipedia is an encyclopedia project, not a social environment for making offline friends.
Wikipedia is not bowdlerized or censored. It contains articles on subjects such as racial slurs, controversial political and religious groups and movements, and sexual acts. However, the information about sexual topics will probably be more neutral and factually accurate than what young teens hear from their peers, and no more erotic than the material of North American or European sex education classes; that is, articles on these topics are kept to facts and are not meant to incite or titillate the reader. Articles on human reproduction may contain anatomical, non-pornographic photographs of sexual organs, which certain cultures may find inappropriate for small chidren. However, Wikipedia can be configured to hide these images if needed. Note also that although it discusses the methodology of terrorism and violence, Wikipedia is not a how-to guide.
Pages which are normally appropriate for children to use are occasionally vandalized with rude words or content which may be offensive. Vandalism is normally noticed and removed within a few minutes—if not seconds—but it is still possible that a person may access a page before this is dealt with. Teachers should supervise young children on Wikipedia, as they would in any other online environment. However, the 2008/9 Wikipedia Selection for Schools is a specific selection of 5,500 articles suitable for school children and has been checked and edited by deletion for this audience. It contains about the equivalent content to a 20 volume encyclopaedia organised around school curriculum subjects, and is available online and as a free download for use by schools.

মুক্ত সোর্স (Open source) মিডিয়া কি?সম্পাদনা

Open-source media is a kind of information produced by open groups of developers in which anybody who wants to can use the information. Open-source production emerged among software engineers with the production of Linux, a free software computer operating system. MediaWiki is an open source software package that supports an open source encyclopedia.
Open-source production relies on qualified users to maintain a constantly improving collection, whether it is an open collection of computer code or of encyclopedic information. Open source collections typically maintain back-up resources, so if a developer accidentally damages the code or the content, it can easily be reverted to an earlier, stable version. The same backup system provides protection against malicious damage to an open-source project.

মানুষ কেনো মুক্ত সোর্স প্রকল্পে অবদান রাখছে?সম্পাদনা

Few surveys have developed reliable answers to why people contribute to open source works like Wikipedia. Some sort of public interest or community spirit is often part of the motive. Open-source projects offer an opportunity to contribute to something that has lasting value and that will continue to grow. Open-source publishing allows writers and software developers to apply their skills outside of a strictly business environment. Casual writers and editors sometimes participate as a hobby or as a learning experience. Classrooms may evaluate and post information as a learning activity. Volunteering is also one of the few ways writers and Web designers can gain experience and exposure without already having any.

এ ব্যাপারে কেনো আগে আমরা কিছু শুনি নি?সম্পাদনা

Wikipedia is relatively new, but chances are always getting better than ever that you have heard of it before. Wikipedia's rapid growth recently has been reported in many prominent media outlets. Wikipedia was established in January 2001, and is now making a place for itself in the world's collection of knowledge. As the encyclopedia grows, more people learn about it every day, much in the same way Internet use surged in the late 1990s. See Wikipedia:Press coverage.
Most people will encounter Wikipedia for the first time through a search engine. Many Google search queries, for instance, will return a Wikipedia article on the first results page. Others may see it referenced on other Web sites or in newspapers.
Many other online encyclopedias simply copy (parts of) Wikipedia, which is allowed because it uses a free content license. This should be mentioned on the page, but the message can be hard to notice. So you may have come across a Wikipedia article without knowing it. However, considering the speed at which Wikipedia develops, these are often quite out of date.
Wikipedia does not advertise as many new services do, so public knowledge of Wikipedia is mostly a result of word of mouth, readers discovering the service while browsing online, or people learning about the encyclopedia from news reports.

বিশ্বকোষ থেকে তথ্য জানা ছাড়া, উইকিপিডিয়া থেকে শিক্ষার্থীরা আরো কী শিখতে পারেন?সম্পাদনা

See also Wikipedia:School and University projects
Most youths will likely at some point become involved in interactive online activities. For educators, youths' involvement with Wikipedia provides an opportunity to survey youths' understanding of online safety, and to teach appropriate practices. Educators can use Wikipedia as a way of teaching students to develop hierarchies of credibility that are essential for navigating and conducting research on the Internet.
Wikipedia provides an opportunity for teachers to discuss the concept of the open content. Wikipedia is an opportunity to participate in an open community that relies primarily on mutual respect and cooperation, but which is not related to familiar authority figures some youths might tend to oppose.
Editing in Wikipedia is an opportunity to learn to participate in collective editorial processes. Wikipedia presents a ready opportunity for youths to research, compile and publish articles for peer review. For youths who contribute images, selection and production of an image provides opportunities to learn what a market wants from an artist. Youths who master skills for accurate writing and drawing about encyclopedic subjects are better equipped to develop their own style in more creative genres.
Because all articles in Wikipedia must conform to neutral point-of-view, students participating in collaborative editing activities on Wikipedia are building experience in detecting and eliminating bias in writing.
See Andy Carvin's blog entry Turning Wikipedia into an asset for schools.

একটি স্কুল গ্রুপ কী তার নিজস্ব উইকি স্থাপন করতে পারে?সম্পাদনা

Yes. The MediaWiki software which powers Wikipedia is an open source software package, which means anyone who knows how to use it and who has access to a server computer may set up his or her own wiki project.
Access to a wiki database can be password protected, to allow groups to develop an open document within their membership. Passwords can allow a wiki to be developed by a school club, a teachers group, a regional group of schools, or any group within an educational community. Wikis might be used for school histories, to develop yearbook material or as class projects. A group can operate a wiki project online or within a closed local area network.
Even without access to a server computer, anyone with a personal computer may download the MediaWiki software and run it as a personal wiki. See: mw:Manual:Wiki on a stick.
For more information, see: How to start a wiki and mw:Manual:Installation guide.

উইকিপিডিয়া সম্মন্ধে আমরা কোথায় জানতে পারবো?সম্পাদনা

উইকিপিডিয়া বৃত্তান্ত দেখুন। আমাদের সম্পর্কে আরো তথ্যের জন্য দেখুন বাংলা উইকিপিডিয়া সম্প্রদায়, অথবা আমাদের অন্য কয়েকটি প্রাজিপ্র দেখুন। এছাড়া দেখুন বাংলা উইকিপিডিয়ার প্রধান পাতা