ইগবো ভাষা (Igbo ইগ্‌বো) আফ্রিকা মহাদেশের নাইজেরিয়ায় প্রচলিত একটি ভাষা। নাইজেরিয়ার দক্ষিণ-পূর্ব অঞ্চলের (বিয়াফ্রা) প্রায় ১ কোটি ৮০ লক্ষ ইগবো জাতির লোক এ ভাষায় কথা বলেন। [১]ইয়োরুবাচীনা ভাষার মত ইগবো ভাষাও একটি সুরপ্রধান ভাষা

ইগবো
Igbo
দেশোদ্ভবনাইজেরিয়া, বিষুবীয় গিনি, অন্যান্য
অঞ্চলনাইজেরীয়া ও অন্যান্য দেশ
মাতৃভাষী
১ কোটি ৮০ লক্ষ
সরকারি অবস্থা
সরকারি ভাষা
নাইজেরিয়া
ভাষা কোডসমূহ
আইএসও ৬৩৯-১ig
আইএসও ৬৩৯-২ibo
আইএসও ৬৩৯-৩ibo

উপভাষাসম্পাদনা

Igbo has a number of dialects, distinguished by accent or orthography but almost universally mutually intelligible, including the Idemili Igbo dialect (the version used in Chinua Achebe's epic novel, Things Fall Apart), bende, Owerri, Ngwa, Umuahia, Nnewi, Onitsha, Awka, Abriba, Arochukwu, Nsukka, Mbaise, Ohafia, Agbor, Wawa and Okigwe,Ukwa/Ndoki. It is considered to be a dialect continuum. There is apparently a degree of dialect levelling occurring.

The wide variety of spoken dialects has made agreeing a standardised orthography and dialect of the Igbo language very difficult. The current Onwu orthography, a compromise between the older Lepsius orthography and a newer orthography advocated by the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures (IIALC), was agreed in 1962.

The dialect form gaining widest acceptance, Central Igbo, is based on the dialects of two members of the Ezinehite group of Igbos in Central Owerri Province between the towns of Owerri and Umuahia, Eastern Nigeria. From its proposal as a literary form in 1939 by Dr. Ida C. Ward, it was gradually accepted by missionaries, writers, and publishers across the region. In 1972, the Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture (SPILC), a nationalist organisation which saw Central Igbo as an imperialist exercise, set up a Standardisation Committee to extend Central Igbo to be a more inclusive language. Standard Igbo aims to cross-pollinate Central Igbo with words from Igbo dialects from outside the "Central" areas, and with the adoption of loan words.

In 1999, Chinua Achebe, the most internationally famous Igbo speaker, passionately denounced Standard Igbo and its ancestors as colonial and conservative impositions on the rich range of Igbo dialects. To illustrate his point, he delivered his lecture in a dialect peculiar only to Onitsha speakers, which was almost unintelligible to more than half the audience.

বিস্তারসম্পাদনা

Igbo is mainly a spoken and colloquial language today, and not much Igbo literature exists. Reading and writing Igbo is not very widespread either, and Igbo is mostly used as a spoken language. Although Igbo is taught at all levels in eastern Nigerian schools, English remains the literary language that is to be studied extensively. In many urban areas, Nigerian Pidgin English often replaces Igbo.

শব্দভাণ্ডারসম্পাদনা

Igbo, like many other West African languages, has borrowed many words from English. Example loanwords include the Igbo word for blue ("blu") and operator ("opareto").

Many names in Igbo are actually fusions of older original words and phrases. For example, one Igbo word for green is "akwukwo nri," which literally means "leaves for eating," or "vegetables." Another example is train ("ugbo igwe"), which comes from the words "ugbo" (vehicle, craft) and "igwe" (iron, metal); thus a locomotive train is vehicle via iron (rails) , a car "ugbo ala" ; vehicle via land and an aeroplane "ugbo elu" ; vehicle via air. Words may also take on multiple meanings. Take for example the word "akwukwo." "Akwukwo" originally means "leaf" (as on a tree), but during and after the colonization period, akwukwo also came to mean "paper," "book," "school," and "education." This is because printed paper can be first likened to an organic leaf, and then the paper to a book, the book to a school, and so on. Combined with other words, "akwukwo" can take on many forms — for example, "akwukwo ego" means "printed money" or "bank notes," and "akwukwo eji eje ije" means "passport." "akwukwo ndu" means "life green leaf on a tree" because "ndu" means "life".

বাগধারা ও প্রবাদসম্পাদনা

Proverbs and idiomatic expressions are highly valued by the Igbo people and proficiency in the language means knowing how to intersperse speech with a good dose of proverbs. Chinua Achebe in Things Fall Apart describes proverbs as "the palm oil with which words are eaten". Proverbs are widely used in the traditional society to describe, in very few words, what could have otherwise required a thousand words.

ধ্বনিব্যবস্থাসম্পাদনা

Igbo is a tonal language with two distinctive tones; high and low. In some cases a third, downstepped high tone is also recognized. The language features vowel harmony with two sets of vowels distinguished by pharyngeal cavity size and can also be described in terms of "advanced tongue root" (ATR).

In some dialects, such as Enu-Onitsha Igbo, the doubly articulated /g͡b/ and /k͡p/ are realized as a voiced/devoiced bilabial implosive. The approximant /ɹ/ is realized as an alveolar tap [ɾ] between vowels as in árá.

Vowel phonemes of Standard Igbo
Consonant phonemes of Standard Igbo
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Labialized
velar
Glottal Labial-
velar
Plosives p b t d k g k͡p g͡b
Nasals m n ŋ ŋʷ
Fricatives f s z ʃ ɣ ɦ
Affricates ʧ ʤ
Approximants ɹ j w
Lateral
approximant
l

Syllables are of the form (C)V (optional consonant, vowel) or N (a syllabic nasal). CV is the most common syllable type. Every syllable bears a tone. Consonant clusters do not occur. The semivowels j and w can occur between consonant and vowel in some syllables. The semi-vowel in CjV is analyzed as an underlying vowel 'ị', so that -bịa is the phonemic form of bjá 'come'. On the other hand, 'w' in CwV is analysed as an instance of labialization; so the phonemic form of the verb -gwá 'tell' is /-gʷá/.

লিখন পদ্ধতিসম্পাদনা

The most commonly-used orthography for Igbo is currently the Onwu (/oŋwu/) Alphabet. It is presented in the following table, with the International Phonetic Alphabet equivalents for the characters:

Igbo Alphabet
(Onwu)
IPA Igbo Alphabet
(Onwu)
IPA
a /a/ /ɔ/
b /b/ p /p/
gb /ɓ/ ~ /ɡ͡b/ kp /ɓ̥/ ~ /k͡p/
d /d/ r /ɾ/
e /e/ s /s/
f /f/ sh /ʃ/
g /ɡ/ t /t/
gh /ɣ/ u /u/
h /h/ /ʊ/
i /i/ v /v/
/ɪ/ w /w/
j /ʤ/ y /j/
k /k/ z /z/
l /l/ ch /ʧ/
m /m/and /m̩/ gw /ɡʷ/
n /n/and /n̩/ kw /kʷ/
/ŋ/ nw /ŋw/
o /o/ ny /nj/

The graphemes <gb> and <kp> are described both as implosives and as coarticulated /ɡ/+/b/and/k/+/p/, thus both values are included in the table.

<m> and <n> each represent two phonemes: a nasal consonant and a syllabic nasal.

Tones are sometimes indicated in writing, and sometimes not. When tone is indicated, low tones are shown with a grave accent over the vowel, for example <a> <à>, and high tones with an acute accent over the vowel, for example <a> <á>.


তথ্যসূত্রসম্পাদনা

  1. Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (২০০৫)। "Ethnologue: Languages of the World: Fifteenth edition"। SIL International।  অজানা প্যারামিটার |accessyear= উপেক্ষা করা হয়েছে (|access-date= ব্যবহারের পরামর্শ দেয়া হচ্ছে) (সাহায্য); অজানা প্যারামিটার |accessmonthday= উপেক্ষা করা হয়েছে (সাহায্য)

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