প্রধান মেনু খুলুন
ব্লুমফন্টেইন: সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য
← পূর্বের পার্থক্য
পরবর্তী পার্থক্য →
১১:১৪, ৩ ডিসেম্বর ২০২০ তারিখে সংশোধিত সংস্করণ
১৫,৮৪৬ বাইট যোগ হয়েছে
১ বছর পূর্বে
০৮:৫৭, ৪ মে ২০২০ তারিখে সংশোধিত সংস্করণ
সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
মোবাইল ওয়েব সম্পাদনা
উচ্চতর মোবাইল সম্পাদনা
← পূর্বের পার্থক্য
১১:১৪, ৩ ডিসেম্বর ২০২০ তারিখে সংশোধিত সংস্করণ
D.Rezaur Rashid xitu
মোবাইল অ্যাপ সম্পাদনা
অ্যান্ড্রয়েড অ্যাপ সম্পাদনা
পরবর্তী পার্থক্য →
[[File:De Wet Statue Bloemfontein.jpg|thumb|স্থ্যপত্য শিল্প]]
From 1960 to 2009, Canada committed a total of US$1.2 billion (constant 2008 dollars) in bilateral (country-to-country) development assistance to the D.R. Congo, of which $0.9 bn. (76%) was actually disbursed. This was a lower disbursement rate than for Canada's aid to all recipient countries, 87% ($99bn. out of $113 bn.). Although exact multilateral aid figures (to the African Development Bank, International Development Association, various UN agencies, etc.) from donor to recipient countries are not reported, the OECD has imputed these values, and they suggest that a higher proportion of Canadian aid to the DRC has gone through the latter channels than for most donor countries (29% vs. 26%). Total OECD Development Assistance Committee disbursements exceeded commitments by 13% over these five decades mainly because commitment figures were not reported until the year 1966 (and imputed multilateral data began in 1975). Canada reportedly provided US$10,000 in grants to Congo (Kinshasa) in each of the years 1960 and 1964 (approximately 0.1% of the total aid), in addition to financing faculty posts and university bursaries, and providing twelve Canadian technical assistance staff in the field of education. Although only 7% of total Canadian bilateral aid to the DRC has been in the form of loans, Canada has until recently carried higher tied aid ratios than most OECD DAC members, such that a large portion of the total Canadian aid volume was spent on Canadian goods and services; only in the last decade has the tying status declined, from 75% in 2000, to just 2% in 2009.
From 2000 to 2007, Canada canceled a total of CAN$79.1 m. in bilateral debt owed to it by the D.R. Congo. The above table shows that virtually all of the US$85 m. (constant 2008 US dollars) in loans made by Canada to the DRC occurred during the 1970s and 1980s. Export Development Canada has reported interest income of C$49 million from the Government of Canada relating to debt relief to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
During the period 1995 to 2009, Canada committed a total of US$395m. in constant 2008 dollars, for bilateral official development assistance (ODA) to the D.R. Congo, representing 2.4% of the $16.6bn. commitments to the DRC from all OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors. Canada's actual aid disbursements were two-thirds of its commitments, with available data for 2002–2009 showing Canada to have provided a total $202m., or 1.4% of total DAC disbursements of $14.7bn. Canadian ODA disbursements to the DRC represented 1.1% of the US$18.7bn. in total Canadian ODA disbursements to developing countries over 2002–09, and DRC aid from Canada was only one-half the contribution level that Canada made among all donors to developing countries, 2.7%.
Canada ranked ninth-highest both in terms of total and per capita (donor nation) ODA disbursements to the DR Congo over 1960–2009, and in terms of ODA per Congolese citizen. In other words, when Canada's total direct aid to the DRC is divided by the Canadian population in 2009, each Canadian effectively provided $26 to the DRC over the last half-century, and Canada collectively provided $14 for every Congolese citizen, or about one-quarter of a dollar for each of the 66 million Congolese per year. In 2001/2002, the D.R. Congo was the tenth-largest recipient of Canadian bilateral ODA flows, at Cdn$25.2m., in 2004/2005, it was eighteenth (Cdn.$28.3m.), and in 2007/2008 it had fallen to the twenty-fifth position (Cdn$19.1m.). It rose to sixteenth position in 2009/2010 (Cdn.$37.3m.) In earlier decades, the D.R. Congo (Zaire) ranked below twentieth (1960–61), thirteenth (1965–66), below twentieth (1970–71 and 1975–76), eighteenth (1980–81), fifteenth (1985–86), eighteenth (1990–91), and below twentieth (1995–96) in Canadian bilateral assistance. In terms of overall development assistance (country-to-country, multilateral and debt relief), the D.R. Congo ranked fourteenth in 2009/2010 (Cdn$.), in the company of eleven other African nations in the top 20 recipients of Canadian aid that year, and fifth-highest in bilateral humanitarian aid receipts (Cdn.$22.7m.). Nevertheless, when the Canadian government announced in 2009 that it would begin concentrating eighty per cent of its international assistance resources on twenty countries, the D.R. Congo was excluded from the seven African designees. In terms of annual net ODA per capita from all donor nations, Congo/Zaire has gone from receiving 75% greater than the average for all sub-Saharan African nations during the 1960s (eighteenth-highest, US$5.9 in aid per Congolese per year, compared to US$3.8 per sub-Saharan African, current dollars), down to 82% less than the regional average in the 1990s (second-lowest, $6.8/Congolese vs. $28.5/sub-Saharan-African), and recovering to 27% below the average during 2000–2008 (twelfth-lowest, $29.9/Congolese vs. $38.8/sub-SaharanAfrican). The nadir in the 1990s followed the massacre of Lubumbashi student protesters in May 1990, when Belgium, the European Commission, Canada and the United States withdrew all except humanitarian aid to Zaire.
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has reported involvement in 108 projects in the DRC between 1999 and early 2011, in the overlapping sectors of democratic governance (34), emergency assistance (33), private sector development (31), health (26), education (11), environment (10), and peacekeeping (5).
In 2011, the [ Canadian Council for International Co-operation] recorded a total of fourteen Canadian civil society groups as active in the D.R. Congo.
Since 1984, Terre Sans Frontières, headquartered in La Prairie, Quebec, reports that it has delivered CDN$10 m. in aid projects to the Upper-Uele region of northern DRC, focusing on improved access to health, safe drinking water, education, and community economic development. Oxfam-Québec, present in the DRC/Zaire since 1984, in 2008 was collaborating with 16 Congolese counterpart organisations, employing two hundred Congolese nationals and fourteen Canadian volunteers in 27 development projects mainly in Orientale and Kivu provinces. L'Entraide missionnaire, based in Montreal, has participated since 1989 in missionary and development NGO working groups focusing on Democratic Republic of Congo (Table de concertation sur les droits humains au Congo-Kinshasa) and the African Great Lakes regions (Table de concertation sur la région des Grands-Lacs), and has regularly presented evidence on Congolese human rights issues at sessions of the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development.
The Quebec-based Fondation Biotechnologie pour le développement durable en Afrique (BDA) is training Congolese farmers in Equateur and Bas-Congo to cultivate and harvest medicinal plants, including the antimalarial-containing margosa and armoise plants.
Of the US$214 million in Canada's imputed multilateral commitments to the D.R. Congo over 2000–2009, at least one-half (approximately US$103 million) has returned directly to the Canadian economy, in the form of Congolese-related World Bank consultancy and supply contracts to Canadian firms, International Finance Corporation investments in Canadian companies active in the DRC, and one Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency investment to a Canadian firm mining copper in the DRC. CIDA's annual statistical reports for fiscal years 2000–2001 to 2009–2010 show a total of Cdn.$103.4 m., or US$84.3 m., in multilateral development assistance provided to the D.R. Congo by federal government departments other than CIDA; these funds principally derived from the Department of Finance's contributions to international financial institutions. Over the same period, CIDA made direct contributions totalling Cdn$14.4m. (US$10.4 m.) to eight D.R. Congo-related projects, for which the executing agency partner was the World Bank or International Monetary Fund, including the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control, and the Demobilization and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants. During the 2000s, financial inflows to Canada from World Bank group contracts in the DRC (US$103 m.) exceeded Canada's World Bank and IMF contributions to the DRC (US$95 m.) by eight per cent.
Preview of references
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. "Aggregate Aid Statistics: ODA by recipient by country", OECD International Development Statistics (database). While disbursements cover the full 1960–2009 period, commitments data were only reported by the OECD from 1966 to 2009, and for imputed multilateral aid from 1975 to 2009. doi:10.1787/data-00061-en (accessed March 12, 2011).
Gérard-Libois, J. 1966. "L'aide extérieure à la République du Congo (II)", Études congolaises, 9(4):1-20.
Canadian International Development Agency. 2011. Statistical Report on International Assistance. Fiscal Year 2009–2010, Canada's United Aid Ratio, p. 27, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/stats/$file/Statistical_Report_2009-2010_eng.pdf (accessed March 31, 2011). [dead link]
Government of Canada. Department of Finance. 2010. "Evaluation of Canada's International Debt Relief Initiatives", Final Report, 2010-07-07 http://www.fin.gc.ca/treas/evaluations/ecidri-eiiadc-eng.asp (accessed March 15, 2011).
Export Development Canada. 2010. Annual Report 2009, p. 42, http://www.edc.ca/publications/2010/2009annualreport/pdf/edc_annual_report_2009_en_full.pdf Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. "Creditor Reporting System: Aid activities", OECD International Development Statistics (database). doi:10.1787/data-00061-en (accessed on 2 March 2011).
Canadian International Development Agency. 2003. Statistical Report on Official Development Assistance. Fiscal Year 2001–2002, Table J, Canadian Country-to-country ODA flows to the Major 30 Recipient Countries, p. 33, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/stats/$file/STATrep02.pdf (accessed March 30, 2011).
Canadian International Development Agency. 2006. Statistical Report on Official Development Assistance. Fiscal Year 2004–2005, Table J, Canadian Country-to-country ODA flows to the Major 30 Recipient Countries, p. 33, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/stats/$file/Stat_rap_04-05.pdf (accessed March 30, 2011).
Canadian International Development Agency. 2010. Statistical Report on International Assistance. Fiscal Year 2007–2008, Table D-2, Canada's Bilateral Aid by Recipient, p. 25-29, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/stats/$file/Statistical_Report_InternationalL_Assistance_2007-2008_EN.pdf (accessed March 30, 2011).
Canadian International Development Agency. 2011. Statistical Report on International Assistance. Fiscal Year 2009–2010, Table D2: Bilateral International Assistance, p. 18-22, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/stats/$file/Statistical_Report_2009-2010_eng.pdf (accessed March 31, 2011). [dead link]
Morrison, David R. 1998. Aid and ebb tide: a history of CIDA and Canadian development assistance, Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, p. 456-459.
Canadian International Development Agency. 2011. Statistical Report on International Assistance. Fiscal Year 2009–2010, p. 3-4, 11, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/INET/IMAGES.NSF/vLUImages/stats/$file/Statistical_Report_2009-2010_eng.pdf (accessed March 31, 2011). [dead link]
Government of Canada. Canadian International Development Agency. "Canada Moves on Another Element of its Aid Effectiveness Agenda (2009-02-23)", Countries of Focus Spotlight, http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/eng/JUD-51895926-JEP (Date Modified: 2009-08-13).
World Bank. 2010. Africa Development Indicators, Net ODA per capita (current US$), 15 March 2010, http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/africa-development-indicators (accessed March 31, 2011).
Autesserre, Séverine. 2010. The trouble with the Congo : local violence and the failure of international peacebuilding, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Canadian International Development Agency. Project Browser, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2011-04-30. (accessed March 4, 2011).
CCIC. 2010. Who's Who in International Development, http://www.ccic.ca/whoswho/index.php?option=com_whoswho&Itemid=26&task=listMembersRegions&lang=en#CD Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine (accessed February 18, 2011).
Terre Sans Frontières. "DR Congo Projects", http://www.terresansfrontieres.ca/tsf/en/projets/pays_projets_e.php?LePays=DRCongo Archived 2012-03-20 at the Wayback Machine (accessed March 18, 2011).
Terre Sans Frontières. "A Brief History of Terre Sans Frontières", http://www.terresansfrontieres.ca/tsf/en/mission/historique_e.php Archived 2012-03-20 at the Wayback Machine (accessed March 18, 2011)
"Oxfam-Québec in Democratic Republic of the Congo", Oxfam-Québec web page, http://oxfam.qc.ca/en/countries/drc (accessed April 26, 2011).
"Our partners in the South", Oxfam-Québec web page, http://oxfam.qc.ca/en/partners/south# Archived 2009-09-01 at the Wayback Machine (accessed April 26, 2011).
Government of Canada. Sub-Committee On Human Rights And International Development Of The Standing Committee On Foreign Affairs And International Trade. "Evidence", March 1, 2000, http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1040079&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=36&Ses=2 (accessed April 29, 2011).
Government of Canada. Subcommittee on International Human Rights of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development. 2010. "Evidence", December 7, 2010, http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=4864875&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=40&Ses=3 (accessed April 29, 2011).
Quinty, Marie. 2010. "Congo: Le salut par les plantes", L'Actualité, Montréal: Dec 1, 2010, 35(19):64.
"Investments" section of this article Canada-Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo_relations#Investments
Canadian International Development Agency. 2010. Home > Publications > Reports > Statistical Report on International Assistance. Various years, tables displaying multilateral support to the D.R. Congo. Annual IFI contributions to DRC from Canadian federal departments other than CIDA, in Canadian dollars, millions (fiscal year, page of report): 2000–2001 (p.37): nil; 2001–2002 (p.37): nil; 2002–2003 (p.37): $20.66; 2003–2004 (p.37): $6.27; 2004–2005 (p.37): $6.54; 2005–2006 (p.50): $19.09; 2006–2007 (p.43): $12.76; 2007–2008 (p.30): $8.58; 2008–2009 (p.31): $12.59; 2009–2010 (p.23): $16.94. Total Canadian multilateral aid to the DRC as reported by CIDA was Cdn.$189.2m. over FY2000/01 - 2009/10, or US$155.3m., which is 27% lower than the OECD's imputed value. http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/acdi-cida.nsf/eng/JUD-4128122-G4W (accessed May 14, 2011).
United States:Canada Exchange Rates for 2000–2008 from Statistics Canada: Home > Publications > Canada at a Glance 2009 > Foreign Trade > Chart 17 Exchange rate, http://www45.statcan.gc.ca/2009/cgco_2009_014c-eng.htm Rates for 2009–2010: Home > Summary tables > Exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and stock prices http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/econ07-eng.htm Archived 2011-01-15 at the Wayback Machine (accessed May 14, 2011).
Department of Finance Canada. Canada at the IMF and World Bank: Report on Operations Under the Bretton Woods and Related Agreements Act, http://www.fin.gc.ca/purl/bretwd-eng.asp (accessed May 14, 2011&/"+":"(' Prince Ahmed ''d.Barrister rexaur rashid xitu..'' ''''
D.Rezaur Rashid xitu
' থেকে আনীত