প্রধান মেনু খুলুন

ভারতের রাজ্য ও কেন্দ্রশাসিত অঞ্চলসমূহের নামের ব্যুৎপত্তি তালিকা

উইকিমিডিয়ার তালিকা নিবন্ধ

১৯৪৭ সালে যুক্তরাষ্ট্রীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র হিসাবে ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র গঠিত হয়। ১৯৫৬ সালে রাজ্য পুনর্গঠন আইন প্রণয়ন হলে ভাষা ভিত্তিক প্রতিটি রাজ্যের রাজ্য সীমানা পুনর্নির্ধারণ করা হয়। ফলে বহু রাজ্যকে তাদের নিজেদের ভাষায় নাম দেওয়া হয়। অনেক রাজ্যের তাদের ভৌগোলিক পরিবেশ, অদ্ভুত ইতিহাস বা জনগোষ্ঠী এবং ঔপনিবেশিক প্রভাবের কারণে নামকরণ করা হয়।

রাজ্যসম্পাদনা

রাজ্যের নাম রাজ্যের ভাষা অর্থ বিঃদ্রঃ
অন্ধ্রপ্রদেশ ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్ (তেলেগু) অন্ধ্রদের প্রদেশ বা স্থান
অন্ধ্র একটি উপজাতি, যা প্রাচীন সংস্কৃত সাহিত্যে উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে, পরে তেলুগু জাতির জন্য একটি প্রতিশব্দ হিসেবে এটি ব্যবহৃত হয়; প্রদেশ শব্দের অর্থ এলাকা বা স্থান। এখানে অন্ধ্র বলতে ঐতরেয় ব্রাহ্মণ বোঝানো হয়েছে।[১] ঐ.ব্রা.৭ঃ১৮ এ আছে যে , বিশ্বামিত্র শূণশ্যেপকে দত্তক নিলে তার জ্যেষ্ঠ্য পুত্ররা তা প্রত্যাখান করায় বিশ্বামিত্র তাদেরকে আর্যাবর্ত থেকে বহিস্কার করে আর অন্ধ্র এদেরই এক উত্তরসূরী ।[২][৩]
অরুণাচল প্রদেশ अरुणाचल प्रदेश (হিন্দি) State of dawn-lit mountains In Sanskrit, aruna means "dawn-lit" and achal "mountains".
আসাম অসম (অসমীয়া) "Uneven" or from "Ahom" Most scholars believe that Assam is derived from the Ahoms, who ruled Assam for six centuries. The word Ahom itself may be derived from Shan (syam in Assamese) or from the Sanskrit word "asama" (uneven, in the sense of "unequal" or "peerless").[৪] See Etymology of Assam.
বিহার बिहार (হিন্দি) Monastery From Sankrit Vihara ("Buddhist monastery"). Foreign invaders often used abandoned viharas as military cantonments; the word Bihar may have come from the large number of viharas thus used in the area.
ছত্তিশগড় छत्तीसगढ़ (হিন্দি) ছত্রিশ দুর্গ Chhattisgarh translates to "Thirty-six forts" in Hindi. There are several theories about what the term "Thirty-six forts" refers to; see Chhattisgarh#Etymology. According to the various theories, the term may refer to the 36 pillars of a temple, 36 former feudal territories or 36 houses. Another theory says that the term is actually a corruption of the word "Chedisgarh" that refers to the Chedi dynasty.
গোয়া गोंय (কোঙ্কণী) Uncertain, probably related to "cow" The name Goa came to European languages via Portuguese, but its precise origin is unclear. A number of theories about its origin are centered around the Sanskrit word go (cow).[৫] For example, the legend of Krishna names a mountain where he saved the cow; the mountain was named "Gomantak", which later became Goa. For other theories, see Goa#Etymology.
গুজরাত ગુજરાત (গুজরাটি) Land of "Gurjars" The Gurjars, who ruled the area around the 8th century.[৬][৭]
হরিয়ানা हरियाणा (হিন্দি) Abode of God or Green forest One theory is that the name derives from the Sanskrit words Hari (a name of Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning "the Abode of God".[৮] Another theory traces the name to the words hari (green) and aranya (forest).[৯]
হিমাচল প্রদেশ हिमाचल प्रदेश (হিন্দি) বরফাবৃত পর্বতমালা বেষ্টিত ভূমি সংস্কৃতে হিমা মানে "বরফ" এবং অচল মানে "পর্বত".
জম্মু ও কাশ্মীর جموں و کشمی (কাশ্মীরি) Jammu and Kashmir regions The word "Jammu" is possibly named after the king Jambu Lochan. "Kashmir" may mean the "Land desiccated by water" (from Sanskrit Ka, water + shimira, to desiccate) or may be derived from the name of the sage Kashyapa.
ঝাড়খন্ড झारखण्ड (হিন্দি) Forest Land jhari means "dense forest" in Sanskrit. khand means "land."
কর্ণাটক ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ (কন্নড়) Lofty Land From karu + nad = karnad, which means "lofty land", referring to the Deccan plateau. karnataka is the adjectival form of karnad, and means "of karnad". In 1947, this state was formed from the princely state of Mysore. In 1956, the Kannada-speaking regions of neighboring states were added to Mysore state. The name was changed to Karnataka in 1973.
কেরালা കേരളം (মালায়লাম) Land added on or Land of "Cheras" or Land of Coconut Trees There are two main theories about the derivation of "Kerala". (1) According to Hindu mythology, parts of Kerala were created by Lord Parasurama, who reclaimed the land from the sea. Hence the name is derived from chernna ("added") and alam ("land"), hence the Sanskrit keralam, "the land added on". (2) The Chera dynasty, which ruled most of Kerala from the 1st to the 5th centuries AD, gave its name to the region; chera alam later became Keralam. This is often disputed in academic circles because the word Kerala existed even before the rule of Cheras. One of Ashoka's inscriptions describes Keralaputra as a land on the Mauryan border.
মধ্যপ্রদেশ मध्य प्रदेश (হিন্দি) Central Province Prior to independence, the majority of this area was administered by the British as the Central Provinces and the Central Indian States. At independence, several of these districts were joined together as the Central Provinces and Berar. In 1950, these two regions were merged with Makrai and Chhattisgarh and the term "Central Provinces" was translated to Hindi as Madhya Pradesh.
মহারাষ্ট্র महाराष्ट्र (মারাঠি) Uncertain; possibly "Maha" (Great) + Sanskritized form of "Ratta dynasty" The most widely accepted theory among scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra ultimately derive from a compound of maha (Sanskrit for "great") and rashtrika.[১০] The word rashtrika is a Sanskritized form of Ratta, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region.[১১] Yet another theory is that the term is derived from maha ("great") and rathi or ratha (charioteer). Another theory states that the term derives from the words maha ("Great") and rashtra ("nation"). However, this theory has not found acceptance among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritized interpretation of later writers.
মণিপুর মণিপুর (মণিপুরী) রত্নের শহর সংস্কৃত থেকে, মণি ("রত্ন") + পুর ("শহর").
মেঘালয় মেঘালয (খাসি) মেঘের বাড়ি From Sanskrit, megha ("clouds") and alaya ("abode").
মিজোরাম Mizoram (মিজো) Land of the highlanders mi means "people" and zo means "hill" and "ram" means country.
নাগাল্যান্ড Nagaland (English) Land of the Nagas. Naga is an exonym used to describe several tribes in the region. The origin of the word "Naga" is uncertain, but one theory states that it originated from the Burmese word Naka, meaning people with earrings or pierced noses.[১২]
ওড়িশা ଓଡ଼ିଶା (ওড়িয়া) Land of the "Odias" The name of the state is derived from the Sanskrit odra vishaya or odra desha that referred to the Odra people who inhabited the central part of the region. Sanskrit and Pali literatures mention the Odra people as odrah and oddaka.
পাঞ্জাব ਪੰਜਾਬ (পাঞ্জাবি) পাঁচ নদের শহর A combination of the Persian words punj ("five") and ab ("water"). The five rivers are the Beas, Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum.
রাজস্থান राजस्थान (হিন্দি) রাজার শহর raja means king in Sanskrit. During British rule, this area was known as Rajputana, "land of the Rajputs".[১৩]
সিকিম सिक्किम (লিম্ব) নতুন ঘর বা প্রাসাদ The most widely accepted origin of the name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two words in Limbu: su ("new") and khyim ("palace" or "house"), in reference to the palace built by the state's first ruler, Phuntsog Namgyal. The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Denjong, which means "valley of rice".
তামিলনাড়ু தமிழ்நாடு (তামিল) Homeland of "Tamils" nadu in the Tamil language means "homeland" or "nation" hence Tamil Nadu means "homeland of Tamils". The origin of the world "Tamil" itself is uncertain: theories range from "self speech" to "sweet sound" (see Tamil language#Etymology).
তেলেঙ্গানা తెలంగాణ (তেলেগু) Land of Telugus

One theory is Tenugu is derived from the Proto-Dravidian word "ten",[১৪] meaning "south" to signify "The people who live in the South". This seems likely because there are similar names for other Dravidian languages : Badaga, Kodagu, and Vadugar (a name for the Telugu-speaking people given by people in Tamil Nadu, meaning "people who are in the north (relatively)").[১৫] The name Telugu then, is a result of the 'n' -> 'l' alternation established in Telugu. Other variants used include Telengu, Telungu, and Tenungu, one of which could have lent its name to the region Telangana.

Alternatively, the name Telangana could have been derived from the word "trilinga", as in the "trilinga desha", which translates to "the country of the three Lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended in the lingam form on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharam, which marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesha, later called "telinga", "telunga" or "telugu".[6][7] The word "telinga" changed over time to Telangana and the name Telangana was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada.[8] One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century C.E.), who was called the "tilangani", which implies that he was from Telangana. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort (Kataka Paludu).[9]

ত্রিপুরা ত্রিপুরা (বাংলা) তিন শহর Several theories exist pertaining to the origin of Tripura's name (see Tripura#Name). Possible origins are from Kokborok (tui, "water" + pra, "near") and Sanskrit (tri, "three" + pura, "city"). The Sanskrit name is linked to Tripura Sundari, the presiding deity of the Tripura Sundari Temple at Udaipur, one of the 51 Shakti Peethas (pilgrimage centres of Shaktism),[১৬][১৭] and to the legendary tyrant king Tripur, who reigned in the region. Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhyu, who belonged to the lineage of Yayati, a king of the Lunar Dynasty.[১৮]
উত্তরপ্রদেশ उत्तर प्रदेश (হিন্দি) উত্তরের প্রদেশ Prior to independence, the majority of the territory now comprising Uttar Pradesh was administered by the British under various names—the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the United Provinces of British India, and simply United Provinces. The latter name was retained at independence. In 1950, the commonly used initials U.P. were preserved by adoption of the name Uttar Pradesh, meaning "Northern Province."
উত্তরাখণ্ড उत्तराखण्ड (হিন্দি) উত্তরের ভূমি In 2000, the new state of Uttaranchal ("northern mountains") was split from Uttar Pradesh. In 2007, the name was changed to Uttarakhand ("northern land").

কেন্দ্রশাসিত অঞ্চলসম্পাদনা

  • আন্দামান ও নিকোবর দ্বীপপুঞ্জ:
    • আন্দামান দ্বীপপুঞ্জ: Italian traveler Niccolò de' Conti (c. 1440) mentioned the word Andaman meant "Island of Gold". A theory that became prevalent in the late 19th century and has since gained momentum is that the name of the islands derives from Sanskrit via the Malay Handuman, named for the deity Hanuman.[১৯]
    • নিকোবর দ্বীপপুঞ্জ: The name "Nicobar" is probably derived from the Chola dynasty name for the islands, Nakkavaram (literally, "naked man" in Tamil) which is inscribed on a Tanjore inscription of 1050 CE.[২০][২১]
  • চন্ডীগড়: "Chandi's fort". No actual fort ever existed; a large Chandi temple "protected" the locals, hence the name. The goddess Chandi appears as a form of the goddess Kali or Parvati.
  • দাদরা ও নগর হাভেলি: From the towns of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
  • দমন ও নিউ: From the towns of Daman and Diu.
  • লক্ষদ্বীপ: "Hundred Thousand Islands". In Sanskrit, laksha means "a hundred thousand" and dweep means "island".
  • দিল্লি: The etymology of "Delhi" is uncertain. The very common view is that its eponym is Dhillu or Dilu, a king of the Mauryan dynasty, who built the city in 50 BC and named it after himself.[২২][২৩][২৪] The Hindi/Prakrit word dhili ("loose") was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the Iron Pillar built by Raja Dhava had a weak foundation and was replaced. Coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal.[২৫] Some other historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of dehleez (ফার্সি: دهليز‎‎) or dehali (সংস্কৃত: देहली). Both terms mean "threshold" or "gateway" and are symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[২৬][২৭] Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika.[২৮]
  • পুদুচেরি: formerly known as Pondicherry: from Puducheri, from Tamil pudu "new" + cheri "settlement" or "camp".[২৯]

তথ্যসূত্রসম্পাদনা

  1. E.J. Rapson (১৯৮৯)। Catalogue of the Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, the Western Ksatrapas, the Traikutaka Dynasty and the "Bodhi" Dynasty। Asian Educational Services। পৃষ্ঠা 250–। আইএসবিএন 978-81-206-0522-0 
  2. Arthur Berriedale Keith (১৯২০)। Rigveda Brahmanas: The Aitareya and Kausitaki Brahmanas of the RigvedaHarvard University Press। পৃষ্ঠা 307। আইএসবিএন 978-81-208-1359-5 
  3. Arthur Berriedale Keith (১৯৯৫)। Vedic Index of Names and SubjectsMotilal Banarsidass। পৃষ্ঠা 23–। আইএসবিএন 978-81-208-1332-8 
  4. Suresh Kant Sharma (সম্পাদক)। Discovery of North-East India3। Mittal। পৃষ্ঠা 1। আইএসবিএন 978-81-8324-037-6 
  5. Teotonio R. De Souza (১৯৯০)। Goa Through the Ages: An economic history। Concept Publishing Company। পৃষ্ঠা 5। আইএসবিএন 978-81-7022-259-0 
  6. Gujarat Government। "Gujarat state official site"The State took its name from the Gujara, the land of the Gujjars, who ruled the area during the 700's and 800's. 
  7. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (১৯৫৪)। The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age। G. Allen & Unwin। পৃষ্ঠা 64। 
  8. Haryana Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  9. Bijender K Punia (১৯৯৪)। Tourism management: problems and prospects। APH। পৃষ্ঠা 18। আইএসবিএন 978-81-7024-643-5 
  10. Maharashtra State Gazetteers: General Series। Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications। ১৯৬৭। পৃষ্ঠা 208। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৩০ মার্চ ২০১৩ 
  11. K. Balasubramanyam (১৯৬৫)। the mysore। Mittal Publications। পৃষ্ঠা 174। GGKEY:HRFC6GWCY6D। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৩০ মার্চ ২০১৩ 
  12. Inato Yekheto Shikhu (২০০৭)। A re-discovery and re-building of Naga cultural values। Daya Books। পৃষ্ঠা 4। আইএসবিএন 978-81-89233-55-6 
  13. John Keay (২০০১)। India: a history। Grove Press। পৃষ্ঠা 231–232। আইএসবিএন 0-8021-3797-0Colonel James tod, who as the first British official to visit Rajasthan spent most of the 1820s exploring its political potential, formed a very different idea of "Rashboots".....and the whole region thenceforth became, for the British, 'Rajputana'. 
  14. Telugu Basha Charitra। Hyderabad: Osmania University। ১৯৭৯। পৃষ্ঠা 6, 7। 
  15. The Dravidian Languages - Bhadriraju Krishnamurti 
  16. Das, J.K. (২০০১)। "Chapter 5: old and new political process in realization of the rights of indigenous peoples (regarded as tribals) in Tripura"। Human rights and indigenous peoples। APH Publishing। পৃষ্ঠা 208–9। আইএসবিএন 978-81-7648-243-1 
  17. Debbarma, Sukhendu (১৯৯৬)। Origin and growth of Christianity in Tripura: with special reference to the New Zealand Baptist Missionary Society, 1938–1988। Indus Publishing। পৃষ্ঠা 20। আইএসবিএন 978-81-7387-038-5 
  18. Acharjya, Phanibhushan (১৯৭৯)। Tripura। Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India। পৃষ্ঠা 1। ASIN B0006E4EQ6 
  19.   |শিরোনাম= অনুপস্থিত বা খালি (সাহায্য)|title= অনুপস্থিত বা খালি (সাহায্য)
  20. John Keay (২০০১)। India: A History। Grove Press। আইএসবিএন 978-0-8021-3797-5... and 'Nakkavaram' certainly represents the Nicobar islands ... 
  21. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica। Encyclopaedia Britannica। ১৯৯৮। আইএসবিএন 978-0-85229-633-2। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০০৮-১১-১৬... The name Nicobar probably is derived from Nakkavaram ("Land of the Naked") ... 
  22. "Chapter 1: Introduction" (PDF)Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006। Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi। পৃষ্ঠা 1–7। ১৩ নভেম্বর ২০১৬ তারিখে মূল (PDF) থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২১ ডিসেম্বর ২০০৬ 
  23. Bakshi, S.R. (১৯৯৫) [2002]। Delhi Through Ages। Anmol Publications PVT. LTD। পৃষ্ঠা 2। আইএসবিএন 81-7488-138-7 
  24. Smith, George (১৮৮২)। The Geography of British India, Political & Physical। J. Murray। পৃষ্ঠা 216–217। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ১ নভেম্বর ২০০৮ 
  25. "Our Pasts II, History Textbook for Class VII"। NCERT। ২৩ জুন ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ জুলাই ২০০৭ 
  26. A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English[স্থায়ীভাবে অকার্যকর সংযোগ]
  27.   |শিরোনাম= অনুপস্থিত বা খালি (সাহায্য)|title= অনুপস্থিত বা খালি (সাহায্য)
  28. Austin, Ian; Thhakur Nahar Singh Jasol। "Chauhans (Cahamanas, Cauhans)"The Mewar Encyclopedia। mewarindia.com। ১৪ নভেম্বর ২০০৬ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২২ ডিসেম্বর ২০০৬ 
  29. Statoids.com.