"মার্স করোনাভাইরাস" পাতাটির দুইটি সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
ট্যাগ: মোবাইল সম্পাদনা মোবাইল ওয়েব সম্পাদনা দৃশ্যমান সম্পাদনা
ট্যাগ: মোবাইল সম্পাদনা মোবাইল ওয়েব সম্পাদনা
 
আলাদাকৃত ২৩৮টি সিকোয়েন্স পরীক্ষা করার পর প্রস্তাব করা হয়, ভাইরাসটি তিনটা ক্লেডে বিভক্ত (codon usage, host, and geographic distribution)। <ref name=Alnazawi2017>{{cite journal | vauthors = Alnazawi M, Altaher A, Kandeel M | title = Comparative Genomic Analysis MERS CoV Isolated from Humans and Camels with Special Reference to Virus Encoded Helicase | journal = Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin | volume = 40 | issue = 8 | pages = 1289–1298 | year = 2017 | pmid = 28769010 | doi = 10.1248/bpb.b17-00241 | doi-access = free }}</ref>
 
==প্রাকৃতিক ভাণ্ডার==
Early research suggested the virus is related to one found in the [[Egyptian tomb bat]]. In September 2012 Ron Fouchier speculated that the virus might have originated in bats.<ref name=NPRFouchierbats>{{cite news |last=Doucleff |first=Michaeleen | name-list-format = vanc |title=Holy Bat Virus! Genome Hints At Origin Of SARS-Like Virus|url=https://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/09/28/161944734/holy-bat-virus-genome-hints-at-origin-of-sars-like-virus|access-date=29 September 2012 |newspaper=[[NPR]]|date=28 September 2012}}</ref> Work by epidemiologist Ian Lipkin of [[Columbia University]] in New York showed that the virus isolated from a bat looked to be a match to the virus found in humans.<ref name="cnn130313">{{cite news |url= http://www.cnn.com/2013/03/13/health/new-coronavirus-case/|title=Death toll from new SARS-like virus climbs to 9 |first=Saad |last=Abedine | name-list-format = vanc |publisher=CNN |date=13 March 2013 |access-date= 2013-03-13}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Doucleff|first=Michaeleen | name-list-format = vanc |title=Holy Bat Virus! Genome Hints At Origin Of SARS-Like Virus|url=https://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/09/28/161944734/holy-bat-virus-genome-hints-at-origin-of-sars-like-virus|access-date=29 September 2012|newspaper=NPR|date=28 September 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=jobs |url=http://www.nature.com/news/deadly-coronavirus-found-in-bats-1.13597 |title=Deadly coronavirus found in bats: Nature News & Comment |journal=Nature |date=2013-08-23 |access-date=2014-01-19|doi=10.1038/nature.2013.13597 }}</ref> 2c betacoronaviruses were detected in ''[[Nycteris]]'' bats in Ghana and ''[[Pipistrellus]]'' bats in Europe that are phylogenetically related to the MERS-CoV virus.<ref name="wwwnc.cdc.gov"/> However the major natural reservoir where humans get the virus infection remained unknown until on 9 August 2013, a report in the journal ''[[The Lancet Infectious Diseases]]'' showed that 50 out of 50 (100%) [[Serum (blood)|blood serum]] from [[Oman]]i camels and {{nowrap|15 of 105}} (14%) from Spanish camels had protein-specific antibodies against the MERS-CoV spike protein. Blood serum from European sheep, goats, cattle, and other camelids had no such antibodies.<ref name="lancet_camel">{{cite journal | vauthors = Reusken CB, Haagmans BL, Müller MA, Gutierrez C, Godeke GJ, Meyer B, Muth D, Raj VS, Smits-De Vries L, Corman VM, Drexler JF, Smits SL, El Tahir YE, De Sousa R, van Beek J, Nowotny N, van Maanen K, Hidalgo-Hermoso E, Bosch BJ, Rottier P, Osterhaus A, Gortázar-Schmidt C, Drosten C, Koopmans MP | title = Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study | journal = The Lancet. Infectious Diseases | volume = 13 | issue = 10 | pages = 859–66 | date = October 2013 | pmid = 23933067 | doi = 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70164-6 | hdl = 10261/142869 | doi-access = free }}</ref>
 
Soon after on 5 September 2013 a seroepidemiological study published in the journal of [[Eurosurveillance]] by R.A Perera ''et al.''<ref name="eurosurveillance.org">{{Cite journal|title = Eurosurveillance - Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody in dromedary camels in Egypt, June 2013|journal = Eurosurveillance|volume = 18|issue = 36|pages = 20574|doi = 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.36.20574|pmid = 24079378|year = 2013|last1 = Perera|first1 = R.|last2 = Wang|first2 = P.|last3 = Gomaa|first3 = M.|last4 = El-Shesheny|first4 = R.|last5 = Kandeil|first5 = A.|last6 = Bagato|first6 = O.|last7 = Siu|first7 = L.|last8 = Shehata|first8 = M.|last9 = Kayed|first9 = A.|last10 = Moatasim|first10 = Y.|last11 = Li|first11 = M.|last12 = Poon|first12 = L.|last13 = Guan|first13 = Y.|last14 = Webby|first14 = R.|last15 = Ali|first15 = M.|last16 = Peiris|first16 = J.|last17 = Kayali|first17 = G.|doi-access = free}}</ref> where they investigated 1343 human and 625 animal sera indicated, the abundant presence of MERS-CoV specific antibody in 108 out of 110 Egyptian dromedary camels but not in other animals such as goats, cows or sheep in this region.<ref name="eurosurveillance.org"/> These are the first and significant scientific reports that indicated the role of "dromedary camels" as a reservoir of MERS-CoV.
 
Recent work links [[camel]]s to the virus. An ahead-of-print dispatch for the journal ''[[Emerging Infectious Diseases]]'' records research showing the coronavirus infection in [[dromedary camel]] calves and adults, 99.9% matching to the genomes of human clade B MERS-CoV.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Hemida MG, Chu DK, Poon LL, Perera RA, Alhammadi MA, Ng HY, Siu LY, Guan Y, Alnaeem A, Peiris M | title = MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia | journal = Emerging Infectious Diseases | volume = 20 | issue = 7 | pages = 1231–4 | date = July 2014 | pmid = 24964193 | pmc = 4073860 | doi = 10.3201/eid2007.140571 }}</ref>
 
At least one person who has fallen sick with MERS was known to have come into contact with camels or recently drank [[camel milk]].<ref name="camel">{{cite web|url=http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2014/04/mers-outbreaks-grow-malaysian-case-had-camel-link|title=MERS outbreaks grow; Malaysian case had camel link|date=17 Apr 2014|last=Roos|first=Robert | name-list-format = vanc |access-date=22 Apr 2014}}</ref>
 
Countries like [[Saudi Arabia]] and the [[United Arab Emirates]] produce and consume large amounts of [[camel meat]]. The possibility exists that African or Australian [[bat]]s harbor the virus and transmit it to camels. Imported camels from these regions might have carried the virus to the Middle East.<ref name=scimag_camel>{{cite web|title=Camels May Transmit New Middle Eastern Virus|url=http://news.sciencemag.org/2013/08/camels-may-transmit-new-middle-eastern-virus|date=8 August 2013|access-date=8 August 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130809013533/http://news.sciencemag.org/2013/08/camels-may-transmit-new-middle-eastern-virus|archive-date=9 August 2013|url-status=dead}}</ref>
 
In 2013 MERS-CoV was identified in three members of a dromedary camel herd held in a Qatar barn, which was linked to two confirmed human cases who have since recovered. The presence of MERS-CoV in the camels was confirmed by the [[RIVM|National Institute of Public Health and Environment]] (RIVM) of the Ministry of Health and the [[Erasmus Medical Center]] (WHO Collaborating Center), the Netherlands. None of the camels showed any sign of disease when the samples were collected. The Qatar Supreme Council of Health advised in November 2013 that people with underlying health conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, respiratory disease, the immunosuppressed, and the elderly, avoid any close animal contacts when visiting farms and markets, and to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands.<ref>{{cite web|title=Three camels hit by MERS coronavirus in Qatar|url=http://www.sch.gov.qa/sch/En/catcontent.jsp?scatId=833&scatType=1&CSRT=8118031749383040885|publisher=Qatar Supreme Council of Health|access-date=28 November 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131204014954/http://www.sch.gov.qa/sch/En/catcontent.jsp?scatId=833&scatType=1&CSRT=8118031749383040885|archive-date=4 December 2013|url-status=dead}}</ref>
 
A further study on dromedary camels from Saudi Arabia published in December 2013 revealed the presence of MERS-CoV in 90% of the evaluated dromedary camels (310), suggesting that dromedary camels not only could be the main reservoir of MERS-CoV, but also the animal source of MERS.<ref name="pmid24342517">{{cite journal | vauthors = Hemida MG, Perera RA, Wang P, Alhammadi MA, Siu LY, Li M, Poon LL, Saif L, Alnaeem A, Peiris M | title = Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013 | journal = Euro Surveillance | volume = 18 | issue = 50 | pages = 20659 | date = December 2013 | pmid = 24342517 | doi = 10.2807/1560-7917.es2013.18.50.20659| doi-access = free }}</ref>
 
According to the 27 March 2014 MERS-CoV summary update, recent studies support that camels serve as the primary source of the MERS-CoV infecting humans, while bats may be the ultimate reservoir of the virus. Evidence includes the frequency with which the virus has been found in camels to which human cases have been exposed, seriological data which shows widespread transmission in camels, and the similarity of the camel CoV to the human CoV.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/MERS_CoV_Update_27_March_2014.pdf?ua=1|title=Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‐CoV)Summary and literature update – as of 27 March 2014|date=27 March 2014|access-date=24 April 2014}}</ref>
 
On 6 June 2014, the ''[[Arab News]]'' newspaper highlighted the latest research findings in the New England Journal of Medicine in which a 44-year-old Saudi man who kept a herd of nine camels died of MERS in November 2013. His friends said they witnessed him applying a topical medicine to the nose of one of his ill camels—four of them reportedly sick with nasal discharge—seven days before he himself became stricken with MERS. Researchers sequenced the virus found in one of the sick camels and the virus that killed the man, and found that their genomes were identical. In that same article, the ''Arab News'' reported that as of 6 June 2014, there have been 689 cases of MERS reported within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with 283 deaths.<ref>{{cite journal | first = Mohammed Rasooldeen | last = Fakeih | name-list-format = vanc | title = 80% drop in MERS infections | journal = Arab News| volume = XXXIX | issue = 183 | page = 1 | date = 6 June 2014 }}</ref>
 
== তথ্যসূত্র ==
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