"১৯৬৫-৬৬ সালের ইন্দোনেশীয় গণহত্যা" পাতাটির দুইটি সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

সম্প্রসারণ
(সম্প্রসারণ)
| date = ১৯৬৫-১৯৬৬
| type = [[জনগণের রাজনৈতিক নির্মূলকরণ]], [[গণহত্যা]], [[পরিকল্পিত গণহত্যা]]<ref name=Melvin />
| fatalities = {{nowrap|৫০০১,০০০,০০০<ref name="Robinson2018"/>{{rp|3}} থেকে ,০০০,০০০<ref name="Robinson2018">{{cite book |last=Robinson |first=Geoffrey B. |date=2018 |title=The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66 |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/11135.html |location= |publisher=[[Princeton University Press]] |page= |isbn=978-1-4008-8886-3 |author-link=}}</ref>{{rp|3}}<ref name="auto1">{{cite book |last=Melvin |first=Jess |date=2018 |title=The Army and the Indonesian Genocide: Mechanics of Mass Murder |url=https://www.routledge.com/The-Army-and-the-Indonesian-Genocide-Mechanics-of-Mass-Murder/Melvin/p/book/9781138574694 |location= |publisher=[[Routledge]] |page=1 |isbn=978-1-138-57469-4 |author-link=}}</ref><ref name="Blumenthal80">Mark Aarons (2007). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=dg0hWswKgTIC&lpg=PA80&pg=PA69#v=onepage&q&f=false Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide]." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). ''[http://www.brill.com/legacy-nuremberg-civilising-influence-or-institutionalised-vengeance The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law).]'' [[Martinus Nijhoff Publishers]]. {{ISBN|9004156917}} p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=dg0hWswKgTIC&pg=PA80 80].</ref><ref name="indoholo">[http://time.com/4055185/indonesia-anticommunist-massacre-holocaust-killings-1965/ The Memory of Savage Anticommunist Killings Still Haunts Indonesia, 50 Years On], ''Time''</ref>}}
| perps = [[ইন্দোনেশীয় সেনা]] এবং বিভিন্ন [[ডেথ স্কোয়াড]], [[মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্র]], [[যুক্তরাজ্য]], [[অস্ট্রেলিয়া]], [[সুইডেন]] এবং অন্যান্য পশ্চিমা সরকারগুলির দ্বারা সমর্থিত<ref>{{cite book |last=Robinson |first=Geoffrey B. |date=2018 |title=The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66 |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/11135.html |location= |publisher=[[Princeton University Press]] |pages=206–207|isbn=978-1-4008-8886-3 |quote="In short, Western states were not innocent bystanders to unfolding domestic political events following the alleged coup, as so often claimed. On the contrary, starting almost immediately after October 1, the United States, the United Kingdom, and several of their allies set in motion a coordinated campaign to assist the army in the political and physical destruction of the PKI and its affiliates, the removal of Sukarno and his closest associates from political power, their replacement by an army elite led by Suharto, and the engineering of a seismic shift in Indonesia's foreign policy towards the West. They did this through backdoor political reassurances to army leaders, a policy of official silence in the face of the mounting violence, a sophisticated international propaganda offensive, and the covert provision of material assistance to the army and its allies. In all these ways, they helped to ensure that the campaign against the Left would continue unabated and its victims would ultimately number in the hundreds of thousands."}}</ref><ref name="Melvintelegrams" /><ref name="Simpson2010">{{cite book |last=Simpson |first=Bradley |date=2010 |title=Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S.–Indonesian Relations, 1960–1968 |url=https://www.sup.org/books/title/?id=7853 |location= |publisher=[[Stanford University Press]] |page=193 |isbn=978-0-8047-7182-5 |quote="Washington did everything in its power to encourage and facilitate the army-led massacre of alleged PKI members, and U.S. officials worried only that the killing of the party's unarmed supporters might not go far enough, permitting Sukarno to return to power and frustrate the [Johnson] Administration's emerging plans for a post-Sukarno Indonesia. This was efficacious terror, an essential building block of the [[neoliberal]] policies that the West would attempt to impose on Indonesia after Sukarno's ouster."}}</ref><ref name="tribunal">{{cite news |last=Perry |first=Juliet |date=21 July 2016 |title=Tribunal finds Indonesia guilty of 1965 genocide; US, UK complicit |url=http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/21/asia/indonesia-genocide-panel/index.html |publisher=CNN |access-date=5 June 2017}}</ref>
}}
 
The '''Indonesian১৯৬৫-৬৬ massসালের killingsইন্দোনেশীয় of 1965–66গণহত্যা''' ('''Indonesianইন্দোনেশীয় genocideপরিকল্পিত গণহত্যা''',<ref>Robert Cribb (2004). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=LoQo50YPzTUC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA133#v=onepage&q&f=false The Indonesian Genocide of 1965–1966]." In [[Samuel Totten]] (ed). ''Teaching about Genocide: Approaches, and Resources''. [[Information Age Publishing]], pp. 133–143. {{ISBN|159311074X}}</ref><ref name=Melvin>{{cite journal |last1=Melvin |first1=Jess |year=2017 |title=Mechanics of Mass Murder: A Case for Understanding the Indonesian Killings as Genocide |journal=[[Journal of Genocide Research]] |volume=19 |issue=4 |pages=487–511 |doi=10.1080/14623528.2017.1393942 |doi-access=free }}</ref><ref name="Robinson2018" />{{rp|4}} '''Indonesianইন্দোনেশীয় Communistকমিউনিস্ট Purge''', '''Indonesian politicideগণহত্যা''',<ref>{{cite web |last1=Roosa |first1=John |title=The 1965–66 Politicide in Indonesia: Toward Knowing Who Did What to Whom and Why |url=http://aparc.fsi.stanford.edu/southeastasia/events/1965-66-politicide-indonesia-toward-knowing-who-did-what-whom-and-why |website=Stanford}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Indonesian Politicide of 1965–66: How Could it Have Happened? |url=https://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/events/indonesian-politicide-1965-66-how-could-it-have-happened |publisher=Maastricht University}}</ref> or theবা '''1965১৯৬৫ Tragedyট্র্যাজেডি''') ({{lang-id|Pembunuhan Massal Indonesia & Pembersihan G.30.S/PKI}}) were large১৯৬৫-scale১৯৬৬ killingsসালের andবেশ কিছু মাস ধরে [[civil unrestইন্দোনেশিয়া|ইন্দনেশিয়ায়]] thatঘটেছিল, occurredযার inমাধ্যমে ইন্দনেশিয়ার ডানপন্থী সরকার ও সৈন্য বাহিনী, [[Indonesiaমার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্র]], over[[যুক্তরাজ্য]], several[[অস্ট্রেলিয়া]], months[[সুইডেন]] এবং অন্যান্য পশ্চিমা সরকারগুলির দ্বারা সমর্থনে, targetingগণ-হত্যাকাণ্ড চলেছিল। এই হত্যাকান্ডে খুন হয় অন্তত ১,০০০,০০০ (দশ লক্ষ) [[Communistইন্দোনেশিয়ার Partyকমিউনিস্ট of Indonesiaপার্টি]] (PKIপিকেআই) party membersসদস্য, Communist[[ইন্দোনেশিয়ার কমিউনিস্ট পার্টি]]<nowiki/>র সমর্থক, sympathisersবামপন্থী, [[Gerwaniগেরওয়ানি]] womenমহিলা, জাতিগত [[Abangan|ethnicজাভাদেশীয় Javanese Abanganঅবাঙ্গন]],<ref name="Ricklefs 1991, p. 288">Ricklefs (1991), p. 288.</ref>, [[Chinese Indonesiansনাস্তিক্যবাদ|ethnic Chineseনাস্তিক]] and alleged leftists, often"[[কাফির]]" atএবং the"[[চীনা instigationইন্দোনেশীয়|জাতিগত ofচীনা]]" theমানুষ। armed[[৩০ forcesসেপ্টেম্বর andআন্দোলন|৩০ government.সেপ্টেম্বর It began as an [[anti-communistআন্দোলনের]] উপর [[purgeঅভ্যুত্থান|অভ্যুত্থানের]] followingমিথ্যা aঅভযোগ controversialদাগিয়ে attemptedদিয়ে ''[[coupএকটি d'état]]''কমিউনিস্ট byবিরোধী theহত্যাকাণ্ড [[30হিসাবে Septemberশুরু Movement]].হয়েছিল। Theপ্রাথমিকভাবে mostঅনুমান widelyকরা publishedহয়েছিল estimatesযে were৫০০,০০০ that(পাঁচ 500,000লক্ষ) toথেকে more১,০০০,০০০ than(দশ oneলক্ষ)-এরও millionবেশি peopleলোক wereমারা killedগিয়েছে,<ref name="Robinson2018"/>{{rp|3}}<ref name="auto1"/><ref name="Blumenthal80"/><ref name="indoholo"/> withসাম্প্রতিক someঅনুমান moreবলে recent২,০০০,০০০ estimates(বিশ goingলক্ষ) asথেকে high৩,০০০,০০০ as(ত্রিশ twoলক্ষ) toমানুষকে threeহত্যা million.করা হয়েছিল।<ref name="Indonesia's killing fields">[http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/101east/2012/12/2012121874846805636.html Indonesia's killing fields]. [[Al Jazeera]], 21 December 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2016.</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Gellately |first1=Robert |author-link1=Robert Gellately |last2=Kiernan |first2=Ben |author-link2=Ben Kiernan |date=July 2003 |title=The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective |url=http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/twentieth-century-regional-history/specter-genocide-mass-murder-historical-perspective |location= |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |pages=[https://books.google.com/books?id=k9Ro7b0tWz4C&lpg=PP1&pg=PA290#v=onepage&q&f=false 290–291] |isbn=0-521-52750-3 |access-date=19 October 2015}}</ref> Theএই purge was a pivotal event in theহত্যাকাণ্ড [[Transitionনিউ toঅর্ডারে the New Order|transition to the "New Order"রূপান্তর]] andএবং theপিকেআইকে eliminationরাজনৈতিক ofশক্তি PKIহিসাবে asনির্মূল aকরার politicalএকটি force,গুরুত্বপূর্ণ withঘটনা impactsছিল, on the globalবিশ্বব্যাপী [[Cold Warস্নায়ুযুদ্ধ|স্নায়ুযুদ্ধে]]. এর প্রভাব ছিল।<ref name="Atlantic2017">{{cite news |last=Bevins |first=Vincent |date=20 October 2017 |title=What the United States Did in Indonesia |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/10/the-indonesia-documents-and-the-us-agenda/543534/ |work=The Atlantic |access-date=21 October 2017}}</ref> Theএই upheavalsউত্থানের led to the fall ofফলে [[Presidentইন্দোনেশিয়ার of Indonesiaরাষ্ট্রপতি|Presidentরাষ্ট্রপতি]] [[Sukarnoসুকর্ণ|সুকর্ণের]] andপতন theঘটে commencement ofএবং [[Suhartoসুহার্তো|সুহার্তোর]]'s three-decadeতিন [[authoritarian]]দশকের অত্যাচারী presidency.রাষ্ট্রপতিত্বের সূচনা হয়।
 
Vigilance and [[social stigma|stigma]] against a perceived communist threat remained a hallmark of Suharto's doctrine, and it is still in force even today.<ref>{{cite news |last=Varagur |first=Krithika |date=23 October 2017 |title=Indonesia Revives Its Communist Ghosts |url=https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2017-10-23/indonesian-military-stirs-communist-fears-for-political-advantage |work=[[U.S. News & World Report]] |access-date=23 October 2017}}</ref>
 
== তথ্যসূত্র ==
{{Refbegin|colwidth=30em}}
* {{cite book |language=Indonesian |editor-last=Alham |editor-first=Asahan |title=Di Negeri Orang: Puisi Penyair Indonesia Eksil |trans-title=In Another Person's Country: Poems By Exiled Indonesian Poets |publisher=Lontar Foundation |location=Jakarta |ref=harv |year=2002 |isbn=978-979-8083-42-6}}
* {{Cite book |last1=Allan |first1=Stuart |last2=Zeilzer |first2=Barbie |year=2004 |title=Reporting War: Journalism in Wartime |location=London and New York |publisher=Routledge |ref=harv}}
* Bellamy, Alex J. (2012). ''Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity.'' [[Oxford University Press]]. {{ISBN|0199288429}}.
* Blakeley, Ruth (2009). ''[http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415462402/ State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South].'' [[Routledge]]. {{ISBN|0415686172}}
* Blumenthal, David A. and McCormack, Timothy L. H. (2007). ''The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law).'' [[Martinus Nijhoff Publishers]]. {{ISBN|9004156917}}
* [[Harold Crouch|Crouch, Harold]] (1978). ''The army and politics in Indonesia'', Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press {{ISBN|0801411556}} (A revision of the author's thesis, Monash University, Melbourne, 1975, entitled: The Indonesia Army in politics, 1960–1971.) pp.&nbsp;65–66. Cited in Cribb (1990).
* {{Citation | last = Cribb | first = Robert | contribution = Introduction: Problems in the historiography of the killings in Indonesia | editor-last = Cribb | editor-first = Robert | title = Monash papers on Southeast Asia – No 21. The Indonesian killings of 1965–1966: studies from Java and Bali | pages = 1–43 | publisher = Monash University, Centre of Southeast Asian Studies | place = Clayyton, Victoria | year = 1990}}
* {{cite journal |url=https://www.academia.edu/2635467 |last1=Cribb |first1=Robert |first2=Charles |last2=Coppel |year=2009 |pages=447–465 |issn=1469-9494 |doi=10.1080/14623520903309503 |title=A genocide that never was: explaining the myth of anti-Chinese massacres in Indonesia, 1965–66 |journal=Journal of Genocide Research |volume=11 |issue=4 |publisher=Taylor & Francis |s2cid=145011789 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |last=Friend |first=T. |title=Indonesian Destinies |publisher=[[Harvard University Press]] |year=2003 |isbn=0-674-01137-6 |url=https://archive.org/details/indonesiandestin00theo }}
* {{Cite thesis |type=Paper delivered at the 17th Biennial Conference on the Asian Studies Association of Australia |title=Knowing Indonesia from Afar: Indonesian Exiles and Australian Academics |url=http://arts.monash.edu.au/mai/asaa/davidhill.pdf |last=Hill |first=David |year=2008 |ref=harv |accessdate=16 March 2012 |archivedate=16 March 2012 |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/66CgifgN8?url=http://arts.monash.edu.au/mai/asaa/davidhill.pdf |url-status=dead}}
* {{cite book |last=McDonald |first=Hamish |title=Suharto's Indonesia |place=Melbourne |publisher=Fontana Books |year=1980 |isbn=0-00-635721-0}}
* {{cite book |editor1-last=McGregor |editor1-first=Katharine |editor1-link= |editor2-last=Melvin |editor2-first=Jess |editor2-link= |editor3-last=Pohlman |editor3-first=Annie |editor3-link= |date=2018 |title=The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies (Palgrave Studies in the History of Genocide) |url=https://www.palgrave.com/de/book/9783319714547 |location= |publisher=[[Palgrave Macmillan]] |isbn=978-3-319-71454-7}}
* [[Nathaniel Mehr|Mehr, Nathaniel]] (2009). ''Constructive Bloodbath in Indonesia: The United States, Great Britain and the Mass Killings of 1965–1966.'' Spokesman Books. {{ISBN|0851247679}}
* {{cite book |last=Melvin |first=Jess |date=2018 |title=The Army and the Indonesian Genocide: Mechanics of Mass Murder |url=https://www.routledge.com/The-Army-and-the-Indonesian-Genocide-Mechanics-of-Mass-Murder/Melvin/p/book/9781138574694 |location= |publisher=[[Routledge]] |isbn=978-1-138-57469-4 |author-link=}}
* Oey Hong Lee, (1971) ''Indonesian government and press during Guided Democracy'' Hull: University of Hull, Hull monographs on South-East Asia; no. 4 . Zug, Switzerland : Inter Documentation Co.
* {{cite book |last=Ricklefs |first=M. C. |title=A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition |publisher=[[Macmillan Publishers|MacMillan]] |year=1991 |isbn=0-333-57689-6}}
* {{cite book |last=Robinson |first=Geoffrey |title=The Dark Side of Paradise: Political Views in Bali |publisher=Ithaca: Cornell University Press |year=1995 |pages=Chapter 11}} cited here from Friend (2003).
* {{cite book |last=Robinson |first=Geoffrey B. |date=2018 |title=The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66 |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/11135.html |location= |publisher=[[Princeton University Press]] |page= |isbn=978-1-4008-8886-3 |author-link=}}
* {{cite book |last=Roosa |first=John |title=Pretext for Mass Murder: The September 30th Movement and Suharto's Coup d'État in Indonesia |year=2006 |publisher=The University of Wisconsin Press |location=Madison, Wisconsin |isbn=978-0-299-22034-1}}
* {{Citation |editor1-last=Schaefer |editor1-first=Bernd |editor2-last=Wardaya |editor2-first=Baskara T. |year=2013 |title=1965: Indonesia and the World |location=Jakarta |publisher=Gramedia Pustaka Utama |isbn=978-9-792-29872-7}}
* {{cite book |last=Schwarz |first=A. |year=1994 |title=A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s |publisher=[[Westview Press]] |isbn=1-86373-635-2 |url=https://archive.org/details/nationinwaitingi00schw }}
* Simpson, Bradley (2010). ''[http://www.sup.org/books/title/?id=7853 Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S.–Indonesian Relations, 1960–1968].'' [[Stanford University Press]]. {{ISBN|0804771820}}
* {{cite book |last=Tan |first=Mely G. |authorlink=Mely G. Tan |year=2008 |language=Indonesian |title=Etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia: Kumpulan Tulisan |trans-title=Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia: A Collection of Writings |publisher=Yayasan Obor Indonesia |location=Jakarta |isbn=978-979-461-689-5 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |last=Taylor |first=Jean Gelman |title=Indonesia: Peoples and Histories |url=https://archive.org/details/indonesia00jean |url-access=registration |publisher=[[Yale University Press]] |year=2003 |location=New Haven and London |isbn=0-300-10518-5}}
* {{cite book |last=Vickers |first=Adrian |authorlink=Adrian Vickers |title=A History of Modern Indonesia |url=https://archive.org/details/historyofmoderni00adri |url-access=registration |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |year=2005 |isbn=0-521-54262-6}}
* Vickers, Adrian (1995), From {{cite book |editor=Eric Oey |title=Bali |publisher=Periplus Editions |year=1995 |location=Singapore |pages=26–35 |isbn=962-593-028-0}}
* {{cite book |last=Vittachi |first=Tarzie |title=The Fall of Sukarno |publisher=Andre Deutsch Ltd |year=1967}}
* {{cite book |last=Weiner |first=Tim |title=Legacy of Ashes&nbsp;– The History of the CIA |publisher=[[Penguin Books]] |year=2007 |isbn=978-1-84614-064-8}}
* {{cite book |last=Westad |first=Odd Arne |authorlink=Odd Arne Westad |year=2005 |title=The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times |location=Cambridge |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-1-139-64382-5 |ref=harv}}
{{Refend}}
 
== বহিঃসংযোগ ==
* [http://www.tribunal1965.org/en/final-report-of-the-ipt-1965/ Final Report of the IPT 1965: Findings and Documents of the IPT 1965]. International People's Tribunal 1965.
* [http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/hindsight/accomplices-in-atrocity-the-indonesian-killings-of/3182630#transcript Accomplices in Atrocity. The Indonesian killings of 1965 (transcript)]. [[Australian Broadcasting Corporation]], 7 September 2008
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20131203100616/https://www1.wsws.org/exhibits/1965coup/coup-1.htm Lessons of the 1965 Indonesian Coup] Terri Cavanagh, ''[[World Socialist Web Site]],'' 1998.
* [https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/06/indonesian-communist-party-suharto-massacre-purge/ The Forgotten Massacres]. ''[[Jacobin (magazine)|Jacobin]].'' 2 June 2015.
* [https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/30/opinion/suhartos-purge-indonesias-silence.html?_r=0 Suharto’s Purge, Indonesia’s Silence]. [[Joshua Oppenheimer]] for ''[[The New York Times]]'', 29 September 2015.
* [http://bigstory.ap.org/article/89662f5cb17b4ed3afe22389071804f9/indonesia-takes-step-toward-reckoning-65-66-atrocities Indonesia takes step toward reckoning with '65–66 atrocities]. ''[[The Associated Press]]''. 18 April 2016
* [http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-24/calls-for-indonesia-to-acknowledge-anti-communist-mass-graves/7439146 Indonesia challenged to admit existence of mass graves from anti-communist purges]. ''Australian Broadcasting Corporation.'' 23 May 2016.
* [https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/29/world/asia/indonesia-communist-purge.html?mcubz=0 Indonesia Takes a Step Back From Reckoning With a Past Atrocity]. ''The New York Times'', 29 September 2017.
* [https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/09/30/in-indonesia-the-fake-news-that-fueled-a-cold-war-massacre-is-still-potent-five-decades-later/ In Indonesia, the ‘fake news’ that fueled a Cold War massacre is still potent five decades later]. ''[[The Washington Post]].'' 30 September 2017.
* [http://indonesiaatmelbourne.unimelb.edu.au/theres-now-clear-proof-that-soeharto-orchestrated-the-1965-killings/ There’s now proof that Soeharto orchestrated the 1965 killings] by Jess Melvin. Indonesia at Melbourne at the [[University of Melbourne]], 26 June 2018.
* [https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/02/27/a-history-of-the-indonesian-massacres/ A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–1966] by Gregory Elich
* [https://books.google.ca/books?id=oVUEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA30&pg=PA24#v=onepage&q&f=false LIFE Magazine article, 1 July 1966]
 
[[বিষয়শ্রেণী:মানবাধিকার লঙ্ঘন]]
১,৪৭২টি

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