"১৯৬৫-৬৬ সালের ইন্দোনেশীয় গণহত্যা" পাতাটির দুইটি সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
| caption = অভ্যুত্থানের চেষ্টার জন্য পিকেআইকে দোষারোপ করে অ্যান্টি-পিকেআই বই
| location = [[ইন্দোনেশিয়া]]
| target = [[ইন্দোনেশিয়ার কমিউনিস্ট পার্টি]](পিকেআই) সদস্য, সমর্থক, [[Gerwaniগেরওয়ানি]] membersসদস্য, ethnicজাতিগত [[Abanganঅবাঙ্গন|Javaneseজাভাদেশীয় Abanganঅবাঙ্গন]],<ref name="Ricklefs 1991, p. 288" /> [[নাস্তিক্যবাদ|নাস্তিক]], "[[কাফির]]" এবং "[[Chineseচীনা Indonesiansইন্দোনেশীয়|ethnicজাতিগত Chineseচীনা]]"<ref name=Melvin />
| date = ১৯৬৫-১৯৬৬
| type = [[Politicideজনগণের রাজনৈতিক নির্মূলকরণ]], [[গণহত্যা]], [[পরিকল্পিত গণহত্যা]]<ref name=Melvin />
| fatalities = {{nowrap|৫০০,০০০<ref name="Robinson2018"/>{{rp|3}} থেকে ১,০০০,০০০<ref name="Robinson2018">{{cite book |last=Robinson |first=Geoffrey B. |date=2018 |title=The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66 |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/11135.html |location= |publisher=[[Princeton University Press]] |page= |isbn=978-1-4008-8886-3 |author-link=}}</ref>{{rp|3}}<ref name="auto1">{{cite book |last=Melvin |first=Jess |date=2018 |title=The Army and the Indonesian Genocide: Mechanics of Mass Murder |url=https://www.routledge.com/The-Army-and-the-Indonesian-Genocide-Mechanics-of-Mass-Murder/Melvin/p/book/9781138574694 |location= |publisher=[[Routledge]] |page=1 |isbn=978-1-138-57469-4 |author-link=}}</ref><ref name="Blumenthal80">Mark Aarons (2007). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=dg0hWswKgTIC&lpg=PA80&pg=PA69#v=onepage&q&f=false Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide]." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). ''[http://www.brill.com/legacy-nuremberg-civilising-influence-or-institutionalised-vengeance The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law).]'' [[Martinus Nijhoff Publishers]]. {{ISBN|9004156917}} p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=dg0hWswKgTIC&pg=PA80 80].</ref><ref name="indoholo">[http://time.com/4055185/indonesia-anticommunist-massacre-holocaust-killings-1965/ The Memory of Savage Anticommunist Killings Still Haunts Indonesia, 50 Years On], ''Time''</ref>}}
| perps = [[ইন্দোনেশীয় সেনা]] এবং বিভিন্ন [[ডেথ স্কোয়াড]], [[মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্র]], [[যুক্তরাজ্য]], [[অস্ট্রেলিয়া]], [[সুইডেন]] এবং অন্যান্য পশ্চিমা সরকারগুলির দ্বারা সমর্থিত<ref>{{cite book |last=Robinson |first=Geoffrey B. |date=2018 |title=The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66 |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/11135.html |location= |publisher=[[Princeton University Press]] |pages=206–207|isbn=978-1-4008-8886-3 |quote="In short, Western states were not innocent bystanders to unfolding domestic political events following the alleged coup, as so often claimed. On the contrary, starting almost immediately after October 1, the United States, the United Kingdom, and several of their allies set in motion a coordinated campaign to assist the army in the political and physical destruction of the PKI and its affiliates, the removal of Sukarno and his closest associates from political power, their replacement by an army elite led by Suharto, and the engineering of a seismic shift in Indonesia's foreign policy towards the West. They did this through backdoor political reassurances to army leaders, a policy of official silence in the face of the mounting violence, a sophisticated international propaganda offensive, and the covert provision of material assistance to the army and its allies. In all these ways, they helped to ensure that the campaign against the Left would continue unabated and its victims would ultimately number in the hundreds of thousands."}}</ref><ref name="Melvintelegrams" /><ref name="Simpson2010" /><ref name="tribunal" />
}}
 
The '''Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66''' ('''Indonesian genocide''',<ref>Robert Cribb (2004). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=LoQo50YPzTUC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA133#v=onepage&q&f=false The Indonesian Genocide of 1965–1966]." In [[Samuel Totten]] (ed). ''Teaching about Genocide: Approaches, and Resources''. [[Information Age Publishing]], pp. 133–143. {{ISBN|159311074X}}</ref><ref name=Melvin /><ref name="Robinson2018" />{{rp|4}} '''Indonesian Communist Purge''', '''Indonesian politicide''',<ref>{{cite web |last1=Roosa |first1=John |title=The 1965–66 Politicide in Indonesia: Toward Knowing Who Did What to Whom and Why |url=http://aparc.fsi.stanford.edu/southeastasia/events/1965-66-politicide-indonesia-toward-knowing-who-did-what-whom-and-why |website=Stanford}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Indonesian Politicide of 1965–66: How Could it Have Happened? |url=https://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/events/indonesian-politicide-1965-66-how-could-it-have-happened |publisher=Maastricht University}}</ref> or the '''1965 Tragedy''') ({{lang-id|Pembunuhan Massal Indonesia & Pembersihan G.30.S/PKI}}) were large-scale killings and [[civil unrest]] that occurred in [[Indonesia]] over several months, targeting [[Communist Party of Indonesia]] (PKI) party members, Communist sympathisers, [[Gerwani]] women, [[Abangan|ethnic Javanese Abangan]],<ref name="Ricklefs 1991, p. 288" /> [[Chinese Indonesians|ethnic Chinese]] and alleged leftists, often at the instigation of the armed forces and government. It began as an [[anti-communist]] [[purge]] following a controversial attempted ''[[coup d'état]]'' by the [[30 September Movement]]. The most widely published estimates were that 500,000 to more than one million people were killed,<ref name="Robinson2018"/>{{rp|3}}<ref name="auto1"/><ref name="Blumenthal80"/><ref name="indoholo"/> with some more recent estimates going as high as two to three million.<ref name="Indonesia's killing fields">[http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/101east/2012/12/2012121874846805636.html Indonesia's killing fields]. [[Al Jazeera]], 21 December 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2016.</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Gellately |first1=Robert |author-link1=Robert Gellately |last2=Kiernan |first2=Ben |author-link2=Ben Kiernan |date=July 2003 |title=The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective |url=http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/twentieth-century-regional-history/specter-genocide-mass-murder-historical-perspective |location= |publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]] |pages=[https://books.google.com/books?id=k9Ro7b0tWz4C&lpg=PP1&pg=PA290#v=onepage&q&f=false 290–291] |isbn=0-521-52750-3 |access-date=19 October 2015}}</ref> The purge was a pivotal event in the [[Transition to the New Order|transition to the "New Order"]] and the elimination of PKI as a political force, with impacts on the global [[Cold War]].<ref name="Atlantic2017" /> The upheavals led to the fall of [[President of Indonesia|President]] [[Sukarno]] and the commencement of [[Suharto]]'s three-decade [[authoritarian]] presidency.
 
Vigilance and [[social stigma|stigma]] against a perceived communist threat remained a hallmark of Suharto's doctrine, and it is still in force even today.<ref>{{cite news |last=Varagur |first=Krithika |date=23 October 2017 |title=Indonesia Revives Its Communist Ghosts |url=https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2017-10-23/indonesian-military-stirs-communist-fears-for-political-advantage |work=[[U.S. News & World Report]] |access-date=23 October 2017}}</ref>
 
Despite a consensus at the highest levels of the US and British governments that it would be necessary "to liquidate Sukarno", as related in a [[Central Intelligence Agency|CIA]] memorandum from 1962,<ref>{{Harvnb|Allan|Zeilzer|2004|p=??}}.<br />{{Harvtxt|Westad|2005|pp=113, 129}} notes that, prior to the mid-1950s—by which time the relationship was in definite trouble—the US actually had, via the CIA, developed excellent contacts with Sukarno.</ref> and the existence of extensive contacts between anti-communist army officers and the [[United States Army|US military]] establishment – training of over 1,200 officers, "including senior military figures", and providing weapons and economic assistance<ref>{{Cite document|title=[Hearings, reports and prints of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs] 91st: PRINTS: A-R.|hdl = 2027/uc1.b3605665?urlappend=%3Bseq=440}}</ref><ref>Macaulay, Scott (17 February 2014). [http://filmmakermagazine.com/84443-the-act-of-killing-wins-documentary-bafta-director-oppenheimers-speech-edited-online/ The Act of Killing Wins Documentary BAFTA; Director Oppenheimer’s Speech Edited Online]. ''[[Filmmaker (magazine)|Filmmaker]].'' Retrieved 12 May 2015.</ref> – the CIA denied active involvement in the killings. Declassified US documents in 2017 revealed that the US government had detailed knowledge of the mass killings from the beginning, and was supportive of the actions of the Indonesian Army.<ref name="Melvintelegrams">{{cite web |url=http://indonesiaatmelbourne.unimelb.edu.au/telegrams-confirm-scale-of-us-complicity-in-1965-genocide/ |title=Telegrams confirm scale of US complicity in 1965 genocide |last=Melvin |first=Jess |date=20 October 2017 |website=Indonesia at Melbourne |publisher=[[University of Melbourne]] |access-date=21 October 2017 |quote=The new telegrams confirm the US actively encouraged and facilitated genocide in Indonesia to pursue its own political interests in the region, while propagating an explanation of the killings it knew to be untrue.}}</ref><ref name="documents2017">{{cite news |author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |title=Files reveal US had detailed knowledge of Indonesia's anti-communist purge |url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/17/indonesia-anti-communist-killings-us-declassified-files |work=[[The Associated Press]] via The Guardian |date=17 October 2017 |access-date=18 October 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last=Dwyer |first=Colin |date=18 October 2017 |title=Declassified Files Lay Bare U.S. Knowledge Of Mass Murders In Indonesia |url=https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/10/18/558509184/declassified-files-lay-bare-u-s-knowledge-of-mass-murders-in-indonesia |publisher=[[NPR]] |access-date=21 October 2017}}</ref> [[Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66#Foreign involvement|US complicity in the killings]], which included providing extensive lists of PKI officials to Indonesian [[death squad]]s,{{refn|<ref name="Kadane" /><ref name="LA Times" /><ref name ="CIA lists" /><ref name="AlexBellamy" /><ref name="Editorial Note" />}} has previously been established by historians and journalists.<ref name="documents2017" /><ref name="Atlantic2017" /> A top-secret CIA report from 1968 stated that the massacres "rank as one of the worst [[mass murder]]s of the 20th century, along with the [[Great Purge|Soviet purges of the 1930s]], the [[The Holocaust|Nazi mass murders]] during the [[World War II|Second World War]], and the [[Chinese Land Reform#Mass killings of landlords|Maoist bloodbath]] of the early 1950s."<ref name="Blumenthal">Mark Aarons (2007). "[https://books.google.com/books?id=dg0hWswKgTIC&lpg=PA80&pg=PA69#v=onepage&q&f=false Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide]." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). ''[http://www.brill.com/legacy-nuremberg-civilising-influence-or-institutionalised-vengeance The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law).]'' [[Martinus Nijhoff Publishers]]. {{ISBN|9004156917}} p.&nbsp;[https://books.google.com/books?id=dg0hWswKgTIC&pg=PA81 81].</ref><ref name="David F. Schmitz 2006 48-49" />
 
== টীকা ==
১,৪৭২টি

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