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ট্যাগ: মোবাইল সম্পাদনা মোবাইল ওয়েব সম্পাদনা উচ্চতর মোবাইল সম্পাদনা
ট্যাগ: মোবাইল সম্পাদনা মোবাইল ওয়েব সম্পাদনা উচ্চতর মোবাইল সম্পাদনা
 
ইতিহাসের সবকালেই, লবণের সহজলভ্যতা সভ্যতার কাছে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। ব্রিটেনে, স্থানের নামের সাথে "-উইচ" প্রত্যয়টির অর্থ এটি একবার স্যান্ডউইচ এবং নরউইচের মতো লবণের উত্স ছিল। নাট্রন উপত্যকা একটি মূল অঞ্চল ছিল যা এর উত্তরে মিশরীয় সাম্রাজ্যকে সমর্থন করেছিল, কারণ এটি এটিকে এক ধরণের নুন সরবরাহ করেছিল যা এর নাম ন্যাট্রন নামে ডাকা হয়েছিল। আজ, লবণ প্রায় সর্বজনীন অ্যাক্সেসযোগ্য, তুলনামূলকভাবে সস্তা এবং প্রায়শই আয়োডিনযুক্ত।
[[File:Piles of Salt Salar de Uyuni Bolivia Luca Galuzzi 2006 a.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|Collected salt mounds]]
[[File:SaltCrystaUSGOV.jpg|thumb|Naturally formed salt crystals]]
[[File:Image-Zigong Salt.jpg|thumb|Ancient method of boiling brine into pure salt in [[China]]]]
 
[[Salt]], also referred to as table salt or by its chemical formula NaCl, is an [[ionic compound]] made of [[sodium]] and [[chloride]] [[ion]]s. All life has evolved to depend on its chemical properties to survive. It has been used by humans for thousands of years, from food preservation to seasoning. Salt's ability to [[Salting (food)|preserve food]] was a founding contributor to the development of [[civilization]]. It helped to eliminate dependence on seasonal availability of food, and made it possible to transport food over large distances. However, salt was often difficult to obtain, so it was a highly valued trade item, and was considered a form of currency by certain peoples. Many [[salt road]]s, such as the [[via Salaria]] in Italy, had been established by the [[Bronze Age]].
 
All through history, availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization. In Britain, the suffix "[[-wich]]" in a placename means it was once a source of salt, as in [[Sandwich, England|Sandwich]] and [[Norwich, England|Norwich]]. The [[Natron Valley]] was a key region that supported the [[Egyptian Empire]] to its north, because it supplied it with a kind of salt that came to be called by its name, [[natron]]. Today, salt is almost universally accessible, relatively cheap, and often [[iodised salt|iodized]].
 
== Sources ==
Salt comes from two main sources: [[sea water]] and the sodium chloride mineral [[halite]] (also known as rock salt). Rock salt occurs in vast beds of [[sedimentary]] [[evaporite]] minerals that result from the drying up of [[endorheic|enclosed]] lakes, [[Sink (geography)|playa]]s, and seas. Salt beds may be up to 350&nbsp;m thick and underlie broad areas. In the [[United States]] and [[Canada]] extensive underground beds extend from the [[Appalachia]]n basin of western [[New York (state)|New York]] through parts of [[Ontario]] and under much of the [[Michigan]] basin. Other deposits are in [[Texas]], [[Ohio]], [[Kansas]], [[New Mexico]], [[Nova Scotia]], and [[Saskatchewan]]. In the [[United Kingdom]] underground beds are found in [[Cheshire]] and around [[Droitwich Spa|Droitwich]]. [[Salzburg]], Austria, was named "the city of salt" for its mines.<ref name=Kurlansky2003>Kurlansky, Mark. ''Salt: A World History''. Penguin Books, 2003 {{ISBN|0-14-200161-9}}</ref> High-quality rock salt was cut in medieval [[Transylvania]], [[Maramureş]] and Southern Poland ([[Wieliczka]]). [[Tuzla]] in Bosnia and Herzegovina was named in Hungarian Só (salt) from the twelfth century on and later "place of salt" by Turks.
 
Salt is extracted from underground beds either by [[mining]] or by [[solution mining]] using water to dissolve the salt. In solution mining the salt reaches the surface as brine, from which the water is evaporated leaving salt crystals.
 
== History ==
[[File:Secoveljske soline - Lera3.jpg|thumb|The [[Sečovlje Saltworks]] on the Northern [[Adriatic Sea]] were probably started in Antiquity and were first mentioned in 804 in the document on ''[[Placitum of Riziano]]''.]]
 
=== Ancient world ===
 
[[Solnitsata]], the earliest known town in [[Europe]], was built around a salt production facility. Located in present-day [[Bulgaria]], the town is thought by archaeologists to have accumulated wealth by supplying salt throughout the [[Balkans]].<ref name=Maugh>{{cite news |title=Bulgarians find oldest European town, a salt production center |first=Thomas H. |last=Maugh II |url=https://www.latimes.com/science/la-xpm-2012-nov-01-la-sci-sn-oldest-european-town-20121101-story.html |newspaper=[[The Los Angeles Times]] |date=1 November 2012 |accessdate=1 November 2012}}</ref>
 
Salt was of high value to the [[Jews]], [[ancient Greeks|Greek]]s, [[Tamils]], [[Chinese people|Chinese]], [[Hittites]]<ref>{{cite web|author=Alper Gölbaş |url=https://www.academia.edu/2340259/Anadolu_Kultur_Olusumunda_Tuzun_Rolu-_The_Role_of_Salt_in_the_Formation_of_the_Anatolian_Culture |title=Anadolu Kültür Oluşumunda Tuzun Rolü- The Role of Salt in the Formation of the Anatolian Culture &#124; Alper Gölbaş |publisher=Academia.edu |date=1970-01-01 |accessdate=2014-05-29}}</ref> and other peoples of antiquity. Aside from being a contributing factor in the development of civilization, salt was also used in the military practice of [[salting the earth]] by various peoples, beginning with the [[Assyria]]ns.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Ridley|title=To Be Taken with a Pinch of Salt: The Destruction of Carthage|journal=Classical Philology|date=1986|volume=81|issue=2|pages=140–146}}</ref>
In the early years of the [[Roman Republic]], with the growth of the city of [[Rome]], roads were built to make transportation of salt to the capital city easier. An example was the [[Via Salaria]] (originally a [[Sabine]] trail), leading from Rome to the [[Adriatic Sea]]. The Adriatic, having a higher [[salinity]] due to its shallow depth, had more productive [[Solar Pond|solar ponds]] compared with those of the [[Tyrrhenian Sea]], much closer to Rome. The word "salary" comes from the [[Latin]] word for salt. A persistent modern claim that the [[Roman Legion]]s were sometimes paid in salt is baseless;<ref>{{cite web | title=Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round | work=Mr Block Archive | author=Bloch, David | url=http://www.salt.org.il/frame_econ.html | accessdate=2006-12-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title=Salt and the evolution of money | author=Bloch, David | url=http://www.salt.org.il/frame_econ.html | work=Mr Block Archive | accessdate=2006-12-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | title=The history of salt production at Droitwich Spa | work=BBC | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/herefordandworcester/hi/people_and_places/religion_and_ethics/newsid_8473000/8473037.stm | accessdate=2011-03-28 | date=2010-01-21}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last1=Gainsford|first1=Peter|title=Salt and salary: were Roman soldiers paid in salt?|url=http://kiwihellenist.blogspot.co.uk/2017/01/salt-and-salary.html|website=Kiwi Hellenist: Modern Myths about the Ancient World|accessdate=11 January 2017}}</ref> the word ''salary'' ultimately derives from an allowance—''salārium''—paid to Roman soldiers for the purchase of salt.<ref>{{cite book |title=[[Oxford English Dictionary]] |chapter=salary, n.}}</ref>
[[File:ZigongSaltwells.jpg|thumb|Vertical [[derrick]]s and drilling rig from Qing dynasty [[Zigong]], China extracting brine from deep underground wells.]]
 
During the late [[Roman Empire]] and throughout the [[Middle Ages]] salt was a precious commodity carried along the [[salt road]]s into the heartland of the [[Germanic peoples|Germanic]] tribes. [[Camel train|Caravan]]s consisting of as many as forty thousand [[camel]]s traversed four hundred miles of the [[Sahara]] bearing salt to inland markets in the [[Sahel]], sometimes trading salt for [[Slavery|slaves]]: [[Timbuktu]] was a noted salt and slave market.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Rodriguez |first1=Junius P |authorlink1=Junius P. Rodriguez |title=The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery |date=1997 |publisher=[[ABC-CLIO]] |location=Santa Barbara, CA |page=636|isbn=9780874368857|volume=2}}</ref>
 
[[Salt in Chinese history]] was both a driver of technological development and a stable source of revenue for the imperial government.
 
=== Cities and wars ===
[[File:Laesoe Saltsyderi 2011 ubt-5.JPG|thumb|Salt production on [[Læsø]], Denmark (reconstruction)]]
Salt has played a prominent role in determining the power and location of the world's great cities. [[Liverpool]] rose from just a small [[England|English]] port to become the prime exporting port for the salt dug in the great [[Cheshire]] [[salt mine]]s and thus became the [[entrepôt]] for much of the world's salt in the 19th century.<ref name=Kurlansky2003/>
 
Salt created and destroyed empires. The salt mines of [[Poland]] led to a vast kingdom in the 16th century, only to be demolished when Germans brought in [[sea salt]] (which most of the world considered superior to [[rock salt]]). [[Venice]] fought and won a war with [[Genoa]] over spices. However, Genoese [[Christopher Columbus]] and [[Giovanni Caboto]] would later destroy the Mediterranean trade by introducing the [[New World]] to the market.<ref name=Kurlansky2003/>
 
Cities, states and duchies along the salt roads exacted heavy duties and taxes for the salt passing through their territories. This practice even caused the formation of cities, such as the city of [[Munich]] in 1158, when the then [[Duke of Bavaria]], [[Henry the Lion]], decided that the [[bishops of Freising]] no longer needed their salt revenue.<ref name=Kurlansky2003/>
 
The ''[[gabelle]]''—a hated [[France|French]] salt tax—was enacted in 1286 and maintained until 1790. Because of the gabelles, common salt was of such a high value that it caused mass population shifts and exodus, attracted invaders and caused wars.<ref name=Kurlansky2003/>
 
In [[American history]], salt has been a major factor in outcomes of wars. In the [[American Revolutionary War|Revolutionary War]], the [[Kingdom of Great Britain|British]] used [[Loyalist (American Revolution)|Loyalists]] to intercept Revolutionaries' salt shipments and interfere with their ability to preserve food.<ref name=Kurlansky2003/> During the [[War of 1812]], salt [[brine]] was used to pay soldiers in the field, as the government was too poor to pay them with money.<ref>{{cite book |last1=McDowell |first1=Lee |title=Mineral Nutrition History: The Early Years |publisher=Fist Edition Design |location=Sarasota, FL |isbn=9781506904580 |page=46}}</ref> Before [[Lewis and Clark]] set out for the [[Louisiana Territory]], [[Thomas Jefferson|President Jefferson]] in his address to Congress mentioned a mountain of salt, 180 miles long and 45 wide, supposed to lie near the Missouri River, which would have been of inconceivable value, as a reason for their expedition.<ref name="Jefferson">{{cite web |url=https://archive.org/details/accountoflouisia00unit |title=Account of Louisiana |publisher=Library of Congress |date= |accessdate=2016-09-10 |page=12}}</ref>
 
During India's independence movement, [[Mohandas Gandhi]] organized the [[Salt Satyagraha]] protest to demonstrate against the [[History of the British salt tax in India|British salt tax]].<ref name=Kurlansky2003/>
 
====Salt production in England====
 
Salt was produced from both mines and sea in [[Medieval England]]. The [[open-pan salt making]] method was used along the [[Lincolnshire]] coast and in the [[saltmarshes]] of [[Bitterne Manor]] on the banks of the [[River Itchen, Hampshire|River Itchen]] in Hampshire where salt production was a notable industry.<ref name=salting>{{cite book |last=Woolgar |first=C.M. |publisher=Yale University Press |title=The Culture of Food in England, 1200-1500 |date=2016 | |url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Culture_of_Food_in_England_1200_1500/zeKoCwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=salting}}</ref>
 
<!--Linked from [[-wich town]]-->
{{see also|-wich town}}{{see also|History of salt in Middlewich}}
''Wich'' and ''wych'' are names associated (but not exclusively) with [[brine]] [[Spring (hydrosphere)|spring]]s or [[Water well|well]]s in [[England]]. Originally derived from the [[Latin]] ''vicus'', meaning "place", by the 11th century use of the 'wich' suffix in placenames was associated with places with a specialised function including that of salt production.<ref name="domesday">{{cite web |url=http://domesdaybook.net/helpfiles/hs855.htm |title=Domesday Book |publisher=Domesday Book |accessdate=2012-02-13 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120227073738/http://domesdaybook.net/helpfiles/hs855.htm |archivedate=2012-02-27 }}</ref> Several English places carry the suffix and are historically related to salt, including the [[Salt in Cheshire|four Cheshire 'wiches']] of [[Middlewich]], [[Nantwich]], [[Northwich]] and [[Leftwich]] (a small village south of Northwich), and [[Droitwich]] in [[Worcestershire]]. Middlewich, Nantwich, Northwich and Droitwich are known as the "Domesday Wiches" due to their mention in the [[Domesday Book]], "an indication of the significance of the salt-working towns in the economy of the region, and indeed of the country".<ref name=domesday/> Salt was very important to Europe because it was hard to trade with Africa and they needed to produce it themselves.
 
=== Salt trade ===
 
[[Salt in Chinese history|Monopolies over salt production and trade]] were essential aspects of [[Economic history of China before 1912|government revenue]] in [[imperial China]] and retained its significance until 20th century.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Flad |first1=Rowan K |title=Salt Production and Social Hierarchy in Ancient China |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=9781139497688 |page=36|year=2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Sheng |first1=Hong |last2=Zhao |first2=Nong |title=China's state-owned enterprises : nature, performance and reform |date=2013 |publisher=World Scientific |location=Singapore |isbn=9789814383844 |page=351|volume=1}}</ref>
 
During modern times, it became more profitable to sell salted food than pure salt. Thus sources of food to salt went hand in hand with salt making. The British controlled saltworks in the [[Bahamas]] as well as [[North America]]n [[cod]] fisheries.<ref name=Kurlansky2003/> The search for [[mineral oil|oil]] in the late 19th and early 20th centuries used the technology and methods pioneered by salt miners, even to the degree that they looked for oil where salt domes were located.<ref name=Kurlansky2003/>
 
== Salt production ==
[[File:Zouthuisje bij Twekkelo.jpg|thumb|A 'zouthuisje', i.e. little salt-house, used for salt making today. Many of these structures can be found near [[Twekkelo]] in [[Twente]], the [[Netherlands]].]]
 
On an industrial scale, salt is produced in one of two principal ways: the [[evaporation]] of salt water ([[brine]]) or by mining. Evaporation can either be solar evaporation<ref>{{cite web | title=Solar Salt production | work=Salt Institute | url=http://www.saltinstitute.org/Production-industry/Production-technologies/Solar-salt-sea-salt | accessdate=2006-12-19 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090131092602/http://www.saltinstitute.org/Production-industry/Production-technologies/Solar-salt-sea-salt | archive-date=2009-01-31 | url-status=dead }}</ref> or using some heating device.
 
=== Solar evaporation of seawater ===
In the correct climate (one for which the ratio of evaporation to rainfall is suitably high) it is possible to use solar evaporation of sea water to produce salt. Brine is evaporated in a linked set of ponds until the solution is sufficiently concentrated by the final pond so that the salt crystallizes on the pond's floor.
 
=== Open pan production from brine ===
{{Main|Open pan salt making}}
 
One of the traditional methods of salt production in more temperate climates is using open pans.<ref>{{cite web
|title=Towards an understanding of open pan salt making
|work=Lion Salt Works History &amp; Heritage
|url=http://www.lionsaltworkstrust.co.uk/history_heritage_salt_making.asp
|accessdate=2006-12-19
|url-status=dead
|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061222131844/http://www.lionsaltworkstrust.co.uk/history_heritage_salt_making.asp
|archivedate=2006-12-22
}}</ref> In open-pan production, salt brine is heated in large, shallow open pans. The earliest examples of this date back to prehistoric times and the pans were made of either a type of ceramic called [[briquetage]], or [[lead]]. Later examples were made from iron. This change coincided with a change from wood to coal for the purpose of heating the brine.<ref>{{cite web|title=Early Salt Making |work=Lion Salt Works History &amp; Heritage |url=http://www.lionsaltworkstrust.co.uk/history_heritage_salt_making.asp |accessdate=2006-12-19 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061222131844/http://www.lionsaltworkstrust.co.uk/history_heritage_salt_making.asp |archivedate=2006-12-22 }}</ref> Brine would be pumped into the pans and concentrated by the heat of the fire burning underneath. As crystals of salt formed, these would be raked out and more brine added.
 
=== Closed pan production under vacuum ===
<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:Salt - Saxa Salt container.jpg|thumb|Container of Saxa salt, produced using vacuum extraction]] -->
 
The open pan salt works has effectively been replaced with a closed pan system where the brine solution is evaporated under a partial vacuum.<ref>{{cite web | title=Vacuum Pan Salt Refining | work=Salt Institute | url=http://www.saltinstitute.org/Production-industry/Production-technologies/Evaporated-salt-refined-salt/Vacuum-pan-refining | accessdate=2006-12-19 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090202064014/http://www.saltinstitute.org/Production-industry/Production-technologies/Evaporated-salt-refined-salt/Vacuum-pan-refining | archive-date=2009-02-02 | url-status=dead }}</ref>
 
=== Salt mines ===
In the second half of the 19th century, industrial mining and new drilling techniques made the discovery of more and deeper deposits possible, increasing [[salt mine|mine salt's]] share of the market. Although mining salt was generally more expensive than extracting it from brine via solar evaporation of seawater, the introduction of this new source reduced the price of salt due to a reduction of monopolization. Extraction of salt from brine is still heavily used; for example, vacuum salt produced by British Salt in [[Middlewich]] has 57% of the [[United Kingdom|UK]] market
<ref>{{cite web | title=Factors affecting rivalry in the relevant market prior to the merger | work=British Salt Limited and New Cheshire Salt Works Limited: A report on the acquisition by British Salt Limited of New Cheshire Salt Works Limited | url=http://www.competition-commission.org.uk/rep_pub/reports/2005/fulltext/505.pdf#page=37 | author=The Competition Commission | accessdate=2006-09-10 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070109013018/http://www.competition-commission.org.uk/rep_pub/reports/2005/fulltext/505.pdf#page=37 | archive-date=2007-01-09 | url-status=dead }}</ref> for salt used in cooking.
 
== Other salt uses ==
{{Main|Bath salts}}
 
The earliest systematic exposition of the different kinds of salts, its uses, and the methods of its extraction was published in China around 2700 [[Common Era|BCE]].{{Citation needed|date=February 2010}} [[Hippocrates]] encouraged his fellow healers to use salt water to heal various ailments by immersing their patients in sea water. The ancient Greeks continued this, and in 1753, English author and physician [[Richard Russell]] published ''The Uses of Sea Water'' in which he declared that salt was a "common defence against the corruption of…bodies" and "contribut[es] greatly to all cures".<ref>{{cite book |last1=Russell |first1=Richard |authorlink1=Richard Russell (doctor) |title=A dissertation on the use of sea-water in the diseases of the glands. Particularly the scurvy, jaundice, King's-evil, leprosy, and the glandular consumption. |date=1753 |publisher=Owen and Goadby |location=London |oclc=181801978|pp=vi, xii}}</ref>
== See also ==
{{div col|colwidth=15em}}
*[[Alberger process]]
*[[Bath salts]]
*[[Cerro de la Sal]] (Salt Mountain), [[Peru]]
*[[Fish sauce]]
*[[Garum]]
*[[Illinois Salines]]
*[[International Salt Co. v. United States]]
*[[Iodised salt]]
*[[James Ford (pirate)]]
*[[Joy Morton]]
*[[John Crenshaw]]
*[[Lüneburg Saltworks]]
*[[Mineral lick]] (salt lick)
*[[Morton Salt]]
*[[Red hill (salt making)]]
*[[Saltern]]
*[[Salt evaporation pond]]
*[[Salt in Cheshire]]
*[[Salt industry in Ghana]]
*[[Salt in the American Civil War]]
*[[Salt March]] ([[India]])
*Salt Riot ([[Moscow uprising of 1648]])
*[[Seawater greenhouse]]
*[[Anikey Stroganov]] ([[Solvychegodsk]] and [[Perm]] salterns)
*[[Sülze Saltworks]]
{{div col end}}
 
== References ==
{{reflist|2}}
 
== Further reading ==
* {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090303162824/http://www.saltinstitute.org/Uses-benefits/Salt-in-history |date=March 3, 2009 |title=Salt Institute History of Salt }}
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20100519142555/http://www.crt.state.la.us/archaeology/virtualbooks/SALT/SALT.HTM The Role of Salt in Eastern North American Prehistory]
 
{{Salt topics}}
 
{{portal bar|Food}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:History Of Salt}}
[[Category:History of salt| ]]
[[Category:History of food and drink|History of salt]]
 
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