"বিকল ভাষা" পাতাটির দুইটি সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
(বট নিবন্ধ পরিষ্কার করেছে। কোন সমস্যায় এর পরিচালককে জানান।)
 
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===লোবেল (২০০০)===
While McFarland (1974) splits Bikol into 11 dialects, Lobel (2000) splits Bikol into 12 different dialects (including Partido Bikol, which McFarland does not differentiate) and 4 main branches.<ref name="Lobel">Lobel, Jason William, Tria, Wilmer Joseph S., and Carpio, Jose Maria Z. 2000. ''An satuyang tataramon / A Study of the Bikol Language''. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.</ref>
* '''[[Coastal Bikol languages|Northern Coastal Bikol]]'''
# '''Central Standard''' – Spoken primarily in [[Naga, Camarines Sur|Naga City]]. Also recognized (and sometimes understood) in [[Daet, Camarines Norte]] and many other areas of Camarines Sur; [[San Pascual, Masbate]] on [[Burias Island]]; [[Legazpi, Albay|Legazpi City]] and other cities along the eastern coast of Albay, southwestern coast of Catanduanes, and northeastern Sorsogon.
## [[Daet, Camarines Norte|Daet]] area variant
## [[Naga, Camarines Sur|Naga City]] area variant
## Eastern Standard Bikol – Spoken in and around [[Legazpi, Albay|Legazpi City]], Catanduanes southern town of [[San Andres, Catanduanes|San Andress]] and [[Caramoran, Catanduanes|Caramoran]] and North [[Sorsogon]]
# '''Partido''' – Spoken in the Camarines Sur municipalities of [[Ocampo, Camarines Sur|Ocampo]], [[Goa, Camarines Sur|Goa]], [[Tigaon, Camarines Sur|Tigaon]], [[Lagonoy, Camarines Sur|Lagonoy]], [[Sagñay, Camarines Sur|Sagñay]], and [[San Jose, Camarines Sur|San Jose]]. This dialect has a mellow intonation and is heavily influenced by Riŋkonāda.
# '''South Catanduanes''' – Spoken in the southern half of Catanduanes.
## [[Virac, Catanduanes|Virac]] area variant
## [[Bato, Catanduanes|Bato]] area variant
## [[San Miguel, Catanduanes|San Miguel]] variant (transitional to North Catanduanes)
* '''Southern Coastal and [[Inland Bikol languages|Inland Bikol]]'''
# '''[[Rinconada Bikol|Riŋkonāda]]''' – Spoken primarily in [[Iriga City]], [[Baao, Camarines Sur|Baao]]; [[Bula, Camarines Sur|Bula]]; [[Balatan, Camarines Sur|Balatan]]; [[Bato, Camarines Sur|Baao]]; and [[Nabua, Camarines Sur]]. Also in Ocampo, Buhi and Pili in Camarines Sur and in parts of [[Polangui, Albay]].
## Lowland Riŋkonāda dialect (lacks /[[ə]]/ vowel)
## Highland Riŋkonāda dialect (with /[[ə]]/ vowel)
# '''Buhinon''' – Spoken in [[Buhi, Camarines Sur]]. Contains features from both Bikol of [[Polangui, Albay|Polangui]] and Bikol of Iriga.
# '''Libon''' – Spoken in [[Libon, Albay]].
# '''West Miraya''' – Spoken in [[Ligao City]], [[Polangui, Albay|Polangui]], [[Oas, Albay|Oas]], and [[Pio Duran, Albay]].
# '''East Miraya''' – Spoken in [[Guinobatan, Albay|Guinobatan]]; [[Camalig, Albay|Camalig]]; [[Daraga, Albay|Daraga]]; [[Jovellar, Albay]]; [[Donsol, Sorsogon|Donsol]] and [[Pilar, Sorsogon]].
## Central ([[Guinobatan, Albay|Guinobatan]])
## Far East ([[Camalig, Albay|Camalig]], [[Daraga, Albay|Daraga]])
## Southeast ([[Jovellar, Albay]], [[Donsol, Sorsogon|Donsol]], [[Pilar, Sorsogon|Pilar]])
* '''Northern Catanduanes''' ('''Pandan''') – Spoken by about 80,000 people in the Northern Catanduanes towns of [[Caramoran, Catanduanes|Caramoran]]; [[Pandan, Catanduanes|Pandan]]; [[Bagamanoc, Catanduanes|Bagamanoc]]; [[Panganiban, Catanduanes|Panganiban]], and [[Viga, Catanduanes|Viga]].
* '''[[Bisakol languages|Bisakol]]'''
# '''Central Sorsogon''' – Spoken in [[Sorsogon City]]; [[Castilla, Sorsogon|Castilla]]; [[Casiguran, Sorsogon|Casiguran]]; and [[Juban, Sorsogon]].
## [[Castilla, Sorsogon|Castilla]] Sorsogon (mixed with Legazpi Bikol)
## [[Casiguran, Sorsogon|Casiguran]]-[[Juban, Sorsogon|Juban]] variant
# '''Southern Sorsogon''' also known as Gubat language – Spoken in [[Gubat, Sorsogon|Gubat]]; [[Barcelona, Sorsogon|Barcelona]]; [[Bulusan, Sorsogon|Bulusan]]; [[Santa Magdalena, Sorsogon|Santa Magdalena]]; [[Matnog, Sorsogon|Matnog]]; [[Irosin, Sorsogon|Irosin]]; and [[Bulan, Sorsogon]].
# '''[[Minasbate language|Masbatenyo]]''' – Spoken in [[Masbate City]]; [[Mobo, Masbate|Mobo]]; [[Uson, Masbate|Uson]]; [[Dimasalang, Masbate|Dimasalang]]; [[Palanas, Masbate|Palanas]]; [[Baleno, Masbate|Masbate]]; [[Aroroy, Masbate|Aroroy]] on the island of Masbate, all of [[Ticao Island]], and [[Claveria, Masbate|Claveria]] on the southern half of Burias Island.
## Standard Masbatenyo
## [[Ticao Island]] variant
 
Some dialects of Southern Bikol have the [[close central unrounded vowel]] /ɨ/ as a reflex of [[Proto-Austronesian language|Proto-Austronesian]] *e. However, [[Proto-Austronesian language|Proto-Austronesian]] *e is realized as /o/ in [[Libon, Albay|Libon]]. Two Bikol dialects have unique additional consonants, namely [[Southern Catanduanes Bikol language|Southern Catanduanes]], which has an [[interdental consonant|interdental]] [[lateral consonant|lateral]] consonant /l̟/ (also transcribed as l̪͆ ),<ref>http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/1772/olson.html</ref><ref>https://vagabonddrifter.wordpress.com/2012/03/17/interdental-lateral/</ref> and Buhi-non, which has the [[voiced velar fricative]] /ɣ/.<ref name="Lobel2009">Lobel, Jason. 2009. "Bikol". In ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=F2SRqDzB50wC Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World]'', 158-161. Oxford: Elsevier.</ref>
 
==তথ্যসূত্র==