"বিপর্যয়ের সম্মুখীন বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্যের তালিকা" পাতাটির দুইটি সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
ট্যাগ: দৃশ্যমান সম্পাদনা বাংলা নয় এমন বিষয়বস্তু অতি মাত্রায় যোগ
{{কাজ চলছে/২০১৮}}
বিপর্যয়ের সম্মুখীন বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্যের তালিকাবিপর্যয়ের সম্মুখীন বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্যের তালিকা , বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্য সম্মেলনের প্রবন্ধ ১১.৪ অনুযায়ী বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্য কমিটির মাধ্যমে [[জাতিসংঘ|জাতিসংঘের]] শিক্ষা, বিজ্ঞান,সাংস্কৃতিক সংগঠন ([[ইউনেস্কো]]) করা হয়<ref group="Nd" name="Nd0১" />।এটি ১৯৭২ সালে [[বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্যবাহী স্থান|বিশ্ব ঐতিহ্যবাহী স্থানগুলি]] নামকরণ এবং পরিচালনা করার জন্য।তালিকার মধ্যে অন্তর্ভুক্ত স্থান গুলি সংরক্ষন করার জন্য সাহায্য চাওয়া হয়<ref name="Foot01" />।
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
!Name
!Image
!Location
!Criteria
!Area
ha (acre)
!Year (WHS)
!Endangered
!Reason
!Refs
|-
!আবু মেনা
|[[চিত্র:Abu Mena Ancient Monastery 04.JPG|150x150পিক্সেল]]
|আবুসির,
মিশর
30°50′30″N29°39′50″E
|Cultural:
(iv)
|182 (450)
|1979
|2001–
|Cave-ins in the area caused by the clay at the surface, which becomes semi-liquid when met with "excess water"
|
|-
!Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves
|
|Arlit Department,
Niger
18°17′N 8°0′E
|Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
|7,736,000 (19,120,000)
|1991
|1992–
|Military conflict and civil disturbance in the region as well as a reduction of wildlife population and degradation of the vegetation cover
|
|-
!Ancient City of Aleppo
|
|Aleppo Governorate,  Syria
<small>36°14′0″N37°10′0″E</small>
|Cultural:
(iii)(iv)
|350 (860)
|1986
|2013–
|Syrian Civil War, currently held by the government. Bombings continue threatening the site.
|
|-
!Ancient City of Bosra
|
|Daraa Governorate,  Syria
<small>32°31′5″N36°28′54″E</small>
|Cultural:
(i)(iii)(vi)
|—
|1980
|2013–
|Syrian Civil War, held by the government.
|
|-
!Ancient City of Damascus
|
|Damascus Governorate,  Syria
<small>33°30′41″N36°18′23″E</small>
|Cultural:
(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
|86 (210)
|1979
|2013–
|Syrian Civil War, rebel gunfire and mortar shelling, mainly from adjacent Jobar suburb endangers foundations.
|
|-
!Ancient Villages of Northern Syria
|
|Syria
<small>36°20′3″N36°50′39″E</small>
|Cultural:
(iii)(iv)(v)
|12,290 (30,400)
|2011
|2013–
|Syrian Civil War, some held by rebels. Reports of looting and demolitions by Islamist groups.
|
|-
!Archaeological Site of Cyrene
|
|Jebel Akhdar,
Libya
32°49′30″N21°51′30″E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (vi)
|—
|1982
|2016–
|Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage.
|
|-
!Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna
|
|Khoms,
Libya
32°38′18″N14°17′35″E
|Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii)
|—
|1982
|2016–
|Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage.
|
|-
!Archaeological Site of Sabratha
|
|Sabratha,
Libya
32°48′19″N12°29′06″E
|Cultural:
(iii)
|—
|1982
|2016–
|Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage.
|
|-
!Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)
|
|Salah ad Din,
Iraq
35°27′24″N43°15′45″E
|Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
|70 (170)
|2003
|2003–
|A planned reservoir that would have partially flooded the site was suspended in the wake of the Iraq War by the new administration; lack of adequate protection.
|
|-
!Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System
|
|Belize, Stann Creek and Toledo
Belize
17°19′N87°32′W
|Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
|96,300 (238,000)
|1996
|2009–
|Mangrove cutting and excessive development
|
|-
!Chan Chan Archaeological Zone
|
|La Libertad,
Peru
8°6′40″S79°04′30″W
|Cultural:
(i), (iii)
|600 (1,500)
|1986
|1986–
|Natural erosion
|
|-
!Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem
|
|Bethlehem,  Palestine
31°42′16″N35°12′27″E
|Cultural:
(iv), (vi)
|2.98 (7.4)
|2012
|2012–
|Damage due to water leaks; however current restoration work is taking place to save the site.
|
|-
!Coro and its Port
|
|Falcón,
Venezuela
11°25′N69°40′W
|Cultural:
(iv), (v)
|107 (260)
|1993
|2005–
|Damage to a great number of structures due to heavy rain between November 2004 and February 2005 as well as the construction of a new monument, a beach walkway and an entrance gate to the city in the buffer zone which could have considerable impact on the value of the site
|
|-
!Crac des Chevaliersand Qal’at Salah El-Din
|
|Homs and LatakiaGovernorates,  Syria
<small>34°46′54″N36°15′47″E</small>
|Cultural:
(ii)(iv)
|9 (22)
|2006
|2013–
|Syrian Civil War, once held by Al-Nusra Front and other Islamist groups, reclaimed by Syrian Arab Army and Hezbollah fighters. Reports of damages and looting caused by Islamist groups was released by the government.
|
|-
!Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley
|
|Bamyan,
Afghanistan
34°49′55″N67°49′36″E
|Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
|159 (390)
|2003
|2003–
|Fragile conservation state due to abandonment, military action and dynamite explosions; causing dangers such as risk of collapse of Buddha niches, further deterioration of cave murals, looting and illicit excavations. Destruction during the rule of Talibandue to their teachings that the statues are abominations to Islam.
|
|-
!East Rennell
|
|Rennell and Bellona Province,
Solomon Islands
11°40′59″S160°10′59″E
|Natural:
(ix)
|37,000 (91,000)
|1998
|2013–
|Damage to the site due to logging and its effect on the local ecoystem
|
|-
!Everglades National Park
|
|Florida,
United States
25°19′N80°56′W
|Natural:
(viii), (ix), (x)
|592,920 (1,465,100)
|1979
|1993–2007, 2010–
|Damage due to Hurricane Andrewand deterioration of water flow and quality due to agricultural and urban development (1993); continued degradation of the site resulting in a loss of marine habitat and decline in marine species (2010)
|
|-
!Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo
|
|Colón Province,
Panama
9°33′14″N79°39′21″W
|Cultural:
(i), (iv)
|—
|1980
|2012–
|Environmental factors, lack of maintenance and urban development
|
|-
!Garamba National Park
|
|Orientale,
Democratic Republic of the Congo
4°0′N 29°15′E
|Natural:
(vii), (x)
|500,000 (1,200,000)
|1980
|1984–1992, 1996–
|Reduction of Northern White Rhinoceros population (1984); poaching of two white rhinos, killing of three rangers and no plan for corrective measures by the authorities (1996)
|
|-
!Hatra
|
|Nineveh Governorate,
Iraq
35°35′17.016″N42°43′5.988″E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv), (vi)
|324 (800)
|1985
|2015–
|Damage inflicted to the property by armed groups
|
|-
!Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town
|
|Hebron Governorate,
Palestine
31°31′27″N35°6′32″E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (vi)
|20.6 (51)
|2017
|2017–
|
|
|-
!Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz
|
|Qashqadaryo Region,
Uzbekistan
39°3′0″N66°50′0″E
|Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
|240 (590)
|2000
|2016–
|Destruction of buildings in its medieval neighbourhoods and continuing urban development.
|
|-
!Historic Centre of Vienna
|
|Vienna,  Austria
48°12′N16°22′E
|Cultural:
(ii)(iv)(vi)
|371 (920)
|2001
|2017–
|New high-rise projects
|
|-
!Historic Town of Zabīd
|
|Al Hudaydah,
Yemen
14°12′N43°19′E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (vi)
|—
|1993
|2000–
|Deteriorating state of historic buildings, inscribed on request of the State Party
|
|-
!Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works
|
|Tarapacá,
Chile
20°12′30″S69°47′40″W
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
|—
|2005
|2005–
|Fragile nature of structures due to lack of maintenance for 40 years; also damage, vandalism and some dismantling; looting
|
|-
!Kahuzi-Biega National Park
|
|South Kivu
and Maniema,
Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°30′S 28°45′E
|Natural:
(x)
|600,000 (1,500,000)
|1980
|1997–
|Deforestation, hunting as well as war and civil strife
|
|-
!Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City
|
|Liverpool
England,
United Kingdom
53°24′24″N2°50′40″W
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
|136 (340)
|2004
|2012–
|Due to the proposed redevelopment of historic docklands known as Liverpool Waters
|
|-
!Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park
|
|Bamingui-Bangoran,
Central African Republic
9°0′N 21°30′E
|Natural:
(ix), (x)
|1,740,000 (4,300,000)
|1988
|1997–
|Illegal grazing and poaching, deteriorating security situation
|
|-
!Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam
|
|Ghōr,
Afghanistan
34°23′48″N64°30′58″E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
|70 (170)
|2002
|2002–
|Lack of legal protection, lack of protection measure or management plan, poor condition of the site
|
|-
!Medieval Monuments in Kosovo
|
|Kosovo
42°39′40″N20°15′56″E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
|2.88 (7.1)
|2004
|2006–
|Lack of legal protection and management; political instability and security
|
|-
!Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve
|
|Lola Prefecture,
Côte d'Ivoire*
Guinea*
7°36′N 8°23′W
|Natural:
(ix), (x)
|18,000 (44,000)
|1981
|1992–
|Iron ore mining concession on part of the World Heritage Site and influx of large number of refugees on the Guinean part of the site
|
|-
!Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia
|
|Temwen Island,
Micronesia
6°50′23″N158°19′51″E
|Cultural:
(i), (iii), (iv), (vi)
|76.7 (190)
|2016
|2016–
|Continuing siltation of waterways contributing to overgrowth and undermining existing structures.
|
|-
!Niokolo-Koba National Park
|
|Tambacounda Region
and Kédougou Region,
Senegal
13°0′N 12°40′W
|Natural:
(x)
|913,000 (2,260,000)
|1981
|2007–
|Degradation of property, low mammal population, management problems and impact of a proposed dam on the Gambia River
|
|-
!Okapi Wildlife Reserve
|
|Orientale,
Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°0′N 28°30′E
|Natural:
(x)
|1,372,625 (3,391,830)
|1996
|1997–
|Looting of park facilities and killing of elephants as a result of an armed conflict in the area
|
|-
!Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls
|
|Jerusalem District
(no nation named by UNESCO)
31°46′36″N35°14′03″E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (vi)
|—
|1981
|1982–
|Uncontrolled urban development, general deterioration of the state of conservation due to tourism and lack of maintenance.
|
|-
!Old City of Sana'a
|
|Sana'a Governorate,
Yemen
15°21′20″N44°12′29″E
|Cultural:
(iv), (v), (vi)
|—
|1986
|2015–
|Yemeni Civil War
|
|-
!Old Town of Ghadamès
|
|Ghadames,
Libya
30°08′00″N9°30′00″E
|Cultural:
(v)
|—
|1986
|2016–
|Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage.
|
|-
!Old Towns of Djenné
|
|Djenné,
Mali
13°54′23″N4°33′18″W
|Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
|—
|1988
|2016–
|Regional insecurity, deteriorating state of the historic town, urbanization and erosion.
|
|-
!Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir
|
|Battir,  Palestine
31°43′11″N35°7′50″E
|Cultural:
(iv)(v)
|349 (860)
|2014
|2014–
|The Israeli West Bank barrier "may isolate farmers from fields they have cultivated for centuries".
|
|-
!Old Walled City of Shibam
|
|Hadhramaut Governorate,
Yemen
15°55′36.984″N48°37′36.012″E
|Cultural:
(iii), (iv), (v)
|—
|1982
|2015–
|Potential threat from the armed conflict, compounding safeguarding and management problems already observed at the site
|
|-
!Rainforests of the Atsinanana
|
|Eastern Madagascar,
Madagascar
14°28′S 49°42′E
|Natural:
(ix), (x)
|479,660 (1,185,300)
|2007
|2010–
|Illegal logging and hunting of endangered lemurs
|
|-
!Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve
|
|La Mosquitia,
Honduras
15°44′40″N84°40′30″W
|Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
|—
|1982
|1996–2007, 2011–
|Logging, fishing and land occupation; poaching and the reduced capacity of the state to manage the site; largely due to the deterioration of law and to the presence of drug traffickers
|
|-
!Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus
|
|Fezzan,
Libya
24°50′00″N10°20′00″E
|Cultural:
(iii)
|—
|1985
|2016–
|Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage.
|
|-
!Salonga National Park
|
|Équateur
and Bandundu Province,
Democratic Republic of the Congo
2°0′S 21°0′E
|Natural:
(vii), (ix)
|3,600,000 (8,900,000)
|1984
|1999–
|Breakdown of civil order
|
|-
!Samarra Archaeological City
|
|Salah ad Din,
Iraq
34°12′N43°52′E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
|15,058 (37,210)
|2007
|2007–
|Security situation following the Iraq War and lack of state control for protection or management of the site
|
|-
!Site of Palmyra
|
|Homs Governorate,  Syria
<small>34°33′15″N38°16′0″E</small>
|Cultural:
(i)(ii)(iv)
|0.36 (0.89)
|1980
|2013–
|Syrian Civil War, captured by the notoriously iconoclastic Islamic State terrorist organization (ISIS).
|
|-
!Timbuktu
|
|Timbuktu,
Timbuktu Region,
Mali
16°46′24″N2°59′58″W
|Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (v)
|—
|1988
|2012–
|Threat of destruction by the Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb, Ansar Dine and Boko Haram. Some monuments are now pillaged and destroyed.
|
|-
!Tomb of Askia
|
|Gao,
Gao Region,
Mali
16°17′21.60″N0°2′41.68″E
|Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
|4.24 (10.5)
|2004
|2012–
|Damaged by Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb and Ansar Dine. Reported destroyed by Ansar Dine when they captured Timbuktu.
|
|-
!Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi
|
|Kampala District,
Uganda
0°19′45″N32°33′12″E
|Cultural:
(i), (iii),
(iv), (vi)
|27 (67)
|2001
|2010–
|Destruction of the Muzibu Azaala Mpanga, the main building of the site, by fire in March 2010
|
|-
!Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra
|
|Sumatra,
Indonesia
02°30′S101°30′E
|Natural:
(vii), (ix), (x)
|2,595,124 (6,412,690)
|2004
|2011–
|Poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads through the site
|
|-
!Virunga National Park
|
|North Kivu
and Orientale,
Democratic Republic of the Congo
0°55′N 29°10′E
|Natural:
(vii), (viii), (x)
|800,000 (2,000,000)
|1979
|1994–
|Deforestation and poaching as a result of the influx of refugees due to the Rwandan Civil War
|
|}
 
== Previously listed sites ==
 
== Notes ==
{{reflist|group=Nd|refs=<ref name=Nd0১>বিশ্ব সাংস্কৃতিক ও প্রাকৃতিক ঐতিহ্য সুরক্ষা সংক্রান্ত কনভেনশন।</ref>}}
<ref name=Note03>Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large.</ref>}}
 
== References ==
বেনামী ব্যবহারকারী