জাতীয়তা: সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
{{Conflict of laws}}
 
''' জাতীয়তা''' একজন ব্যাক্তি এবং [[স্বাধীন রাষ্ট্র|রাষ্ট্র]] এর মধ্যে <ref name="Vonk2012">{{cite book|last=Vonk|first=Olivier|title=Dual Nationalityনাগরিকতা in the European Union: A Study on Changing Norms in Public and Private International Law and in the Municipal Laws of Four EU Member States|date=March 19, 2012|publisher=Martinus Nijhoff Publishers|isbn=90-04-22720-2|pages=19–20}}</ref> আইন গত সম্পর্ক। জাতীয়তা রাষ্ট্রকে বাক্তির উপর আইনগত অধিকার এনে দেয় এবং ব্যাক্তিকে এনে দেয় রাষ্ট্রের সুরক্ষা। এসব অধিকার এবং দায়িত্ব কি তার তারতম্য ঘটে রাষ্ট্র থেকে রাষ্ট্রে।<ref name="Weis1979">Weis, Paul. ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=hSLGDXqXeegC&pg=PA29 Nationalityনাগরিকতা and Statelessness in International Law]''. BRILL; 1979 [cited 19 August 2012]. ISBN 9789028603295. p. 29–61.</ref>
 
[[আন্তর্জাতিক প্রথাগত আইন|প্রথা]] এবং আন্তর্জাতিক রীতি অনুযায়ী, এটি প্রত্যেক রাষ্ট্রের অধিকার যা নিরধারন করে কারা সেই রাষ্ট্রের জাতি হবে ।<ref>[http://eudo-citizenship.eu/InternationalDB/docs/Convention%20on%20certain%20questions%20relating%20to%20the%20conflict%20of%20nationality20নাগরিকতা%20laws%20FULL%20TEXT.pdf Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationalityনাগরিকতা Laws]. The Hague, 12 April 1930. Full text. Article 1, "It is for each State to determine under its own law who are its nationals...".</ref> এই নির্দেশক গুলো [[জাতীয়তা আইনের]] অংশ. কিছু ক্ষেত্রে জাতীয়তার নির্দেশক গুলোও নিয়ন্ত্রিত হয় [[সরকারী আন্তর্জাতিক আইন]] দারা— উধাহরনস্বরূপ,[[রাষ্ট্রহীনতা]]র উপর [[চুক্তি|চুক্তিপত্র]] এবং [[জাতীয়তার বিষয়ক ইউরোপীয় সম্মেলন,(European Convention on Nationalityনাগরিকতা)]]।
জাতীয়তা, [[নাগরিকতা]] থেকে কারিগরি এবং আইনগত ভাবে পৃথক, যা বাক্তি এবং দেশের মধ্যে পৃথক ধরনের আইনগত সম্পর্ক।''জাতীয়তা'' বিশেষ্য পদটি উভয় নাগরিক এবং অনাগরিককে বোঝাতে পারে । নাগরিকের সবচেয়ে সাধারন পার্থক্যকারি বৈশিষ্ট্য হচ্ছে নাগরিক রাষ্ট্রের [[রাজনীতি|রাজনৈতিক]] জীবনে অনশগ্রহন করতে পারে, যেমন [[ভোট]] দেয়ার মাধ্যমে অথবা [[প্রার্থী|নিরবাচনে প্রতিযোগিতা করে]]. যাইহোক, আধুনিক দেশে সকল জাতিই রাষ্ট্রের নাগরিক এবং পূর্ণ নাগরিকরা রাষ্ট্রের জাতি। <ref name="Vonk2012" /><ref name="Kadelbach" />
 
ইংরেজি এবং কিছু অন্য ভাষাতে,''জাতীয়তা'' শব্দটিকে ব্যাবহার করা হয় [[জাতিগত গোষ্ঠী]] নির্দেশ করার জন্য। (মানুষের একটি দল যারা একই জাতিয় পরিচিতি, ভাষা, সংস্কৃতি, ইতিহাস এবং আরও অনেক কিছু ভাগাভাগি করে। জাতীয়তার Thisএই meaningসংজ্ঞাটি ofরাজনৈতিক nationalityসীমানা isবা notপাসপোর্ট definedমালিকানার byভিত্তিতে politicalদেয়া bordersহয় orনি [[passport]]এবং ownershipযেসব andজাতির includesস্বাধীন nationsরাষ্ট্র that lack an [[sovereign state|independent state]]নেই (such as the [[Scottishযেমন people|Scots]]স্কট, [[Welsh people|Welsh]]ওয়েলস, [[English people|English]]ইংলিশ, [[Basques]]কুরদ, [[Kurds]]তামিল, [[Kabyleশিখ people|Kabyles]],ইত্যাদি [[Tamils]],) [[Hmongতাদেরকেউ people|Hmong]],অন্তর্ভুক্ত [[Inuit]],করে। [[Māori people|Māori]] and [[Sikhs]]).{{fact|date=April 2016}}
 
যারা বড় কোন সরকার থেকে স্বায়ত্তশাসন এর ক্ষমতা অর্জন করেছে তাদেরকেউ নাগরিক বলা যেতে পারে।
Individuals may also be considered nationals of groups with [[autonomous administrative division|autonomous status]] which [[devolution|have ceded some power]] to a larger government.
 
== আন্তর্জাতিক আইন ==
== International law ==
Inআন্তর্জাতিক internationalআইনে law,জাতীয়তা nationalityহচ্ছে isএকটি the statusঅবস্থা orঅথবা relationshipসম্পর্ক thatযা givesএকটি aজাতিকে nationপৃথক theএকটি rightজাতি to protectথেকে aরক্ষা personকরার fromঅধিকার otherপ্রদান nations.করে।<ref name=Kadelbach /> কূটনীতিক Diplomaticএবং andঅধিনায়কীয় [[consularসুরক্ষা protection]]নির্ভর areকরে dependentব্যাক্তি uponএবং thisরাষ্ট্রের relationshipএই betweenসম্পর্কের the person and the state.উপর।<ref name="Kadelbach">{{cite book|last1=Kadelbach |first1=Stefan |editor1-last=Ehlers|editor1-first=Dirk |title=European Fundamental Rights and Freedoms |chapter=Part V: Citizenship Rights in Europe |date=2007|publisher=De Gruyter Recht |location=Berlin|isbn=9783110971965|pages=547–548|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BHep8q-OxboC&pg=PA547}}</ref> একজন Aব্যাক্তির person'sনাগরিকতার statusএই asঅবস্থা beingএকটি theদেশের nationalআইনের ofসংঘাতের aসমস্যার countryসমাধান is used to resolve the [[conflict of laws]].করে।<ref name="Bast" />
 
Nationalityনাগরিকতা is alsoএমন theএকটি statusঅবস্থা thatযা allowsএকটি aজাতিকে nationকোন toব্যাক্তি grantউপর rightsঅধিকার toপ্রদান theঈবং subjectবিধি andনিষেধ toপ্রদান impose obligations upon the subject.করে।<ref name=Kadelbach /> In most cases, no rights or obligations are automatically attached to this status, although the status is a necessary precondition for any rights and obligations created by the state.<ref name=Bast>{{cite book |editor1-last= von Bogdandy|editor1-first=Armin|editor2-last=Bast|editor2-first=Jürgen |title=Principles of European Constitutional Law.|date=2009|publisher=Hart Pub.|location=Oxford|isbn=9781847315502|pages=449–451|edition=2nd}}</ref>
 
Within the broad limits imposed by few treaties and international law, states may freely define who their nationals are and are not.<ref name=Kadelbach /> However, since the [[Nottebohm case|''Nottebohm'' case]], other states are only required to respect their claim to protect an alleged national if the nationalityনাগরিকতা is based on a true social bond.<ref name=Kadelbach /> In the case of dual nationalityনাগরিকতা, states may determine the most effective nationalityনাগরিকতা for a person, to determine which state's laws are most relevant.<ref name="Bast" /> There are also limits on removing a person's status as a national. Article 15 of the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] states that "Everyone has the right to a nationalityনাগরিকতা," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationalityনাগরিকতা nor denied the right to change his nationalityনাগরিকতা."
 
== National law ==
Nationals normally have the [[right of return|right to enter or return]] to the country they belong to. [[Passports]] are issued to nationals of a state, rather than only to citizens, because the passport is the travel document used to enter the country. However, nationals may not have the [[right of abode]] (the right to live permanently) in the countries that grant them passports.
 
==Nationalityনাগরিকতা versus citizenship==
Nationalityনাগরিকতা is legally a distinct concept from citizenship. Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationalityনাগরিকতা is a matter of international dealings.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003">Turner, Bryan S; Isin, Engin F. ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=gtiZqLcJYZEC&pg=PA278 Handbook of Citizenship Studies]''. SAGE; 2003-01-29. ISBN 9780761968580. p. 278–279.</ref>
 
In the modern era, the concept of full citizenship encompasses not only active political rights, but full [[civil rights]] and [[social rights]].<ref name="Kadelbach" /> Nationalityনাগরিকতা is a [[necessary and sufficient condition|necessary but not sufficient condition]] to exercise full political rights within a state or other [[polity]].<ref name="Vonk2012" /> Nationalityনাগরিকতা is required for full citizenship, and some people have nationalityনাগরিকতা without having full citizenship. A person who is denied full rights is commonly called a [[second-class citizen]].
 
Historically, the most significant difference between a national and a citizen is that the citizen has the right to vote for elected officials, and to be elected.<ref name="Kadelbach" /> This distinction between full citizenship and other, lesser relationships goes back to antiquity. Until the 19th and 20th centuries, it was typical for only a small percentage of people who belonged to a city or state to be full citizens. In the past, most people were excluded from citizenship on the basis of gender, socioeconomic class, ethnicity, religion, and other factors. However, they held a legal relationship with their government akin to the modern concept of nationalityনাগরিকতা.<ref name="Kadelbach" />
 
[[United States nationalityনাগরিকতা law]] defines some persons born in U.S. outlying possessions as [[United States nationalityনাগরিকতা law#Nationals who are not citizens|U.S. nationals but not citizens]]. [[British nationalityনাগরিকতা law]] defines six classes of British national, among which "British citizen" is one class (having the [[right of abode]] in the United Kingdom, along with some "British subjects"). Similarly, in the [[Republic of China]], commonly known as [[Taiwan]], the status of [[national without household registration]] applies to people who have [[Republic of China nationalityনাগরিকতা law|Republic of China nationalityনাগরিকতা]], but do not have an automatic entitlement to enter or reside in the [[Taiwan Area]], and do not qualify for civic rights and duties there. Under the nationalityনাগরিকতা laws of [[Mexican nationalityনাগরিকতা law|Mexico]], [[Colombian nationalityনাগরিকতা law|Colombia]], and some other Latin American countries, nationals do not become citizens until they turn 18.
 
==Nationalityনাগরিকতা versus ethnicity==
{{Main|Ethnic nationalism}}
 
Nationalityনাগরিকতা is sometimes used simply as an alternative word for [[ethnic group|ethnicity]] or national origin, just as some people assume that citizenship and nationalityনাগরিকতা are identical.<ref>{{cite book |author=Oommen, T. K. |title=Citizenship, nationalityনাগরিকতা, and ethnicity: reconciling competing identities |publisher=Polity Press |location=Cambridge, UK |year=1997 |page=6 |isbn=0-7456-1620-8 |oclc= }}</ref> In some countries, the [[cognate]] word for ''nationalityনাগরিকতা'' in local language may be understood as a synonym of ethnicity or as an identifier of cultural and family-based self-determination, rather than on relations with a state or current government. For example, some [[Kurds]] say that they have Kurdish nationalityনাগরিকতা, even though there is no Kurdish [[sovereign state]] at this time in history.
 
[[File:Russian birth certificate of Michael Lucas.JPG|thumb|A Soviet birth certificate, in which the ''nacional'nost' '' of both parents (here both [[Jews|Jewish]]) was recorded. These records were subsequently used to determine the ethnicity of the child, as specified in his internal passport.]]
In the context of former [[Soviet Union]] and former [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia]], "nationalityনাগরিকতা" is often used as translation of the [[Russian language|Russian]] ''nacional'nost' '' and [[Serbo-Croatian]] ''narodnost'', which were the terms used in those countries for [[ethnic group]]s and local affiliations within the member states of the [[federation]]. In the Soviet Union, more than 100 such groups were formally recognized. Membership in these groups was identified on Soviet [[internal passport]]s, and recorded in [[census]]es in both the USSR and Yugoslavia. In the early years of the Soviet Union's existence, ethnicity was usually determined by the person's native language, and sometimes through religion or cultural factors, such as clothing.<ref name="Slezkine">Slezkine, Yuri (Summer 1994) "The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism" ''Slavic Review'' Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 414-452</ref> Children born after the revolution were categorized according to their parents' recorded ethnicities. Many of these ethnic groups are still recognized by modern [[Russia]] and other countries.
 
Similarly, the term ''[[List of ethnic groups in China|nationalities of China]]'' refers to ethnic and cultural groups in China. Spain is one nation, made up of [[Nationalities and regions of Spain|nationalities]], which are not politically recognized as nations (state), but can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish nation. Spanish law recognises the autonomous communities of [[Andalusia]], [[Aragon]], [[Balearic Islands]], [[Canary Islands]], [[Catalonia]], [[Valencian Community|Valencia]], [[Galicia (Spain)|Galicia]] and the [[Basque Country (autonomous community)|Basque Country]] as "[[Nationalities and regions of Spain|nationalities]]" (''nacionalidades'').
 
==Nationalityনাগরিকতা versus national identity==
[[National identity]] is a person's subjective sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. A person may be a national of a state, in the sense of having a formal legal relationship with it, without subjectively or emotionally feeling a part of that state. Conversely, a person may feel that he belongs to one state without having any legal relationship to it. For example, children who were brought to the U.S. illegally when quite young and grow up there in ignorance of their immigration status often have a national identity of feeling American, despite legally being nationals of a different country.
 
==Dual nationalityনাগরিকতা==
[[Dual nationalityনাগরিকতা]] is when a single person has a formal relationship with two separate, sovereign states.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003" /> This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country claims all offspring of the mother's as their own nationals, but the father's country claims all offspring of the father's.
 
Nationalityনাগরিকতা, with its historical origins in allegiance to a sovereign monarch, was seen originally as a permanent, inherent, unchangeable condition, and later, when a change of allegiance was permitted, as a strictly exclusive relationship, so that becoming a national of one state required rejecting the previous state.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003" />
 
Dual nationalityনাগরিকতা was considered a problem that caused conflict between states and sometimes imposed mutually exclusive requirements on affected people, such as simultaneously serving in two countries' military forces. Through the middle of the 20th century, many international agreements were focused on reducing the possibility of dual nationalityনাগরিকতা. Since then, many accords recognizing and regulating dual nationalityনাগরিকতা have been formed.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003" />
 
==Statelessness==
* ''[[jus soli]]''
* [[List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations]]
*[[Nottebohm case|Nottebohm (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala)]], a 1955 case that is cited for its definitions of nationalityনাগরিকতা
* [[Second-class citizen]]
 
 
==অতিরিক্ত পড়ুন==
* White, Philip L. (2006). [http://www.nationalityinworldhistoryনাগরিকতাinworldhistory.net/ch1.html What is a nationalityনাগরিকতা?], "Globalization and the Mythology of the Nation State," in A.G.Hopkins, ed. ''Global History: Interactions Between the Universal and the Local'' Palgrave Macmillan, pp.&nbsp;257–284 এর ভিত্তিতে
* Grossman, Andrew. [http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/lgd/2001_1/grossman/ ''Gender and National Inclusion'']
* [http://www.panarchy.org/acton/nationalityনাগরিকতা.html Lord Acton, Nationalityনাগরিকতা] (1862)
 
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