জাতীয়তা: সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
সম্পাদনা সারাংশ নেই
== পাতাটি মুছে ফেলবেন না। খুব শীঘ্রই বাকি অংশ যুক্ত করা হবে ==
 
 
{{Legal status}}
{{Conflict of laws}}
জাতীয়তা, [[নাগরিকতা]] থেকে কারিগরি এবং আইনগত ভাবে পৃথক, যা বাক্তি এবং দেশের মধ্যে পৃথক ধরনের আইনগত সম্পর্ক।''জাতীয়তা'' বিশেষ্য পদটি উভয় নাগরিক এবং অনাগরিককে বোঝাতে পারে । নাগরিকের সবচেয়ে সাধারন পার্থক্যকারি বৈশিষ্ট্য হচ্ছে নাগরিক রাষ্ট্রের [[রাজনীতি|রাজনৈতিক]] জীবনে অনশগ্রহন করতে পারে, যেমন [[ভোট]] দেয়ার মাধ্যমে অথবা [[প্রার্থী|নিরবাচনে প্রতিযোগিতা করে]]. যাইহোক, আধুনিক দেশে সকল জাতিই রাষ্ট্রের নাগরিক এবং পূর্ণ নাগরিকরা রাষ্ট্রের জাতি। <ref name="Vonk2012" /><ref name="Kadelbach" />
 
ইংরেজি এবং কিছু অন্য ভাষাতে,''জাতীয়তা'' শব্দটিকে ব্যাবহার করা হয় [[জাতিগত গোষ্ঠী]] নির্দেশ করার জন্য। (মানুষের একটি দল যারা একই জাতিয় পরিচিতি, ভাষা, সংস্কৃতি, ইতিহাস এবং আরও অনেক কিছু ভাগাভাগি করে। This meaning of nationality is not defined by political borders or [[passport]] ownership and includes nations that lack an [[sovereign state|independent state]] (such as the [[Scottish people|Scots]], [[Welsh people|Welsh]], [[English people|English]], [[Basques]], [[Kurds]], [[Kabyle people|Kabyles]], [[Tamils]], [[Hmong people|Hmong]], [[Inuit]], [[Māori people|Māori]] and [[Sikhs]]).{{fact|date=April 2016}}
 
Individuals may also be considered nationals of groups with [[autonomous administrative division|autonomous status]] which [[devolution|have ceded some power]] to a larger government.
 
== International law ==
In international law, nationality is the status or relationship that gives a nation the right to protect a person from other nations.<ref name=Kadelbach /> Diplomatic and [[consular protection]] are dependent upon this relationship between the person and the state.<ref name="Kadelbach">{{cite book|last1=Kadelbach |first1=Stefan |editor1-last=Ehlers|editor1-first=Dirk |title=European Fundamental Rights and Freedoms |chapter=Part V: Citizenship Rights in Europe |date=2007|publisher=De Gruyter Recht |location=Berlin|isbn=9783110971965|pages=547–548|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BHep8q-OxboC&pg=PA547}}</ref> A person's status as being the national of a country is used to resolve the [[conflict of laws]].<ref name="Bast" />
 
Nationality is also the status that allows a nation to grant rights to the subject and to impose obligations upon the subject.<ref name=Kadelbach /> In most cases, no rights or obligations are automatically attached to this status, although the status is a necessary precondition for any rights and obligations created by the state.<ref name=Bast>{{cite book |editor1-last= von Bogdandy|editor1-first=Armin|editor2-last=Bast|editor2-first=Jürgen |title=Principles of European Constitutional Law.|date=2009|publisher=Hart Pub.|location=Oxford|isbn=9781847315502|pages=449–451|edition=2nd}}</ref>
 
Within the broad limits imposed by few treaties and international law, states may freely define who their nationals are and are not.<ref name=Kadelbach /> However, since the [[Nottebohm case|''Nottebohm'' case]], other states are only required to respect their claim to protect an alleged national if the nationality is based on a true social bond.<ref name=Kadelbach /> In the case of dual nationality, states may determine the most effective nationality for a person, to determine which state's laws are most relevant.<ref name="Bast" /> There are also limits on removing a person's status as a national. Article 15 of the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] states that "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality."
 
== National law ==
Nationals normally have the [[right of return|right to enter or return]] to the country they belong to. [[Passports]] are issued to nationals of a state, rather than only to citizens, because the passport is the travel document used to enter the country. However, nationals may not have the [[right of abode]] (the right to live permanently) in the countries that grant them passports.
 
==Nationality versus citizenship==
Nationality is legally a distinct concept from citizenship. Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationality is a matter of international dealings.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003">Turner, Bryan S; Isin, Engin F. ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=gtiZqLcJYZEC&pg=PA278 Handbook of Citizenship Studies]''. SAGE; 2003-01-29. ISBN 9780761968580. p. 278–279.</ref>
 
In the modern era, the concept of full citizenship encompasses not only active political rights, but full [[civil rights]] and [[social rights]].<ref name="Kadelbach" /> Nationality is a [[necessary and sufficient condition|necessary but not sufficient condition]] to exercise full political rights within a state or other [[polity]].<ref name="Vonk2012" /> Nationality is required for full citizenship, and some people have nationality without having full citizenship. A person who is denied full rights is commonly called a [[second-class citizen]].
 
Historically, the most significant difference between a national and a citizen is that the citizen has the right to vote for elected officials, and to be elected.<ref name="Kadelbach" /> This distinction between full citizenship and other, lesser relationships goes back to antiquity. Until the 19th and 20th centuries, it was typical for only a small percentage of people who belonged to a city or state to be full citizens. In the past, most people were excluded from citizenship on the basis of gender, socioeconomic class, ethnicity, religion, and other factors. However, they held a legal relationship with their government akin to the modern concept of nationality.<ref name="Kadelbach" />
 
[[United States nationality law]] defines some persons born in U.S. outlying possessions as [[United States nationality law#Nationals who are not citizens|U.S. nationals but not citizens]]. [[British nationality law]] defines six classes of British national, among which "British citizen" is one class (having the [[right of abode]] in the United Kingdom, along with some "British subjects"). Similarly, in the [[Republic of China]], commonly known as [[Taiwan]], the status of [[national without household registration]] applies to people who have [[Republic of China nationality law|Republic of China nationality]], but do not have an automatic entitlement to enter or reside in the [[Taiwan Area]], and do not qualify for civic rights and duties there. Under the nationality laws of [[Mexican nationality law|Mexico]], [[Colombian nationality law|Colombia]], and some other Latin American countries, nationals do not become citizens until they turn 18.
 
==Nationality versus ethnicity==
{{Main|Ethnic nationalism}}
 
Nationality is sometimes used simply as an alternative word for [[ethnic group|ethnicity]] or national origin, just as some people assume that citizenship and nationality are identical.<ref>{{cite book |author=Oommen, T. K. |title=Citizenship, nationality, and ethnicity: reconciling competing identities |publisher=Polity Press |location=Cambridge, UK |year=1997 |page=6 |isbn=0-7456-1620-8 |oclc= }}</ref> In some countries, the [[cognate]] word for ''nationality'' in local language may be understood as a synonym of ethnicity or as an identifier of cultural and family-based self-determination, rather than on relations with a state or current government. For example, some [[Kurds]] say that they have Kurdish nationality, even though there is no Kurdish [[sovereign state]] at this time in history.
[[File:Russian birth certificate of Michael Lucas.JPG|thumb|A Soviet birth certificate, in which the ''nacional'nost' '' of both parents (here both [[Jews|Jewish]]) was recorded. These records were subsequently used to determine the ethnicity of the child, as specified in his internal passport.]]
 
 
[[File:Russian birth certificate of Michael Lucas.JPG|thumb|A Soviet birth certificate, in which the ''nacional'nost' '' of both parents (here both [[Jews|Jewish]]) was recorded. These records were subsequently used to determine the ethnicity of the child, as specified in his internal passport.]]
In the context of former [[Soviet Union]] and former [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia]], "nationality" is often used as translation of the [[Russian language|Russian]] ''nacional'nost' '' and [[Serbo-Croatian]] ''narodnost'', which were the terms used in those countries for [[ethnic group]]s and local affiliations within the member states of the [[federation]]. In the Soviet Union, more than 100 such groups were formally recognized. Membership in these groups was identified on Soviet [[internal passport]]s, and recorded in [[census]]es in both the USSR and Yugoslavia. In the early years of the Soviet Union's existence, ethnicity was usually determined by the person's native language, and sometimes through religion or cultural factors, such as clothing.<ref name="Slezkine">Slezkine, Yuri (Summer 1994) "The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism" ''Slavic Review'' Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 414-452</ref> Children born after the revolution were categorized according to their parents' recorded ethnicities. Many of these ethnic groups are still recognized by modern [[Russia]] and other countries.
 
Similarly, the term ''[[List of ethnic groups in China|nationalities of China]]'' refers to ethnic and cultural groups in China. Spain is one nation, made up of [[Nationalities and regions of Spain|nationalities]], which are not politically recognized as nations (state), but can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish nation. Spanish law recognises the autonomous communities of [[Andalusia]], [[Aragon]], [[Balearic Islands]], [[Canary Islands]], [[Catalonia]], [[Valencian Community|Valencia]], [[Galicia (Spain)|Galicia]] and the [[Basque Country (autonomous community)|Basque Country]] as "[[Nationalities and regions of Spain|nationalities]]" (''nacionalidades'').
 
==Nationality versus national identity==
[[National identity]] is a person's subjective sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. A person may be a national of a state, in the sense of having a formal legal relationship with it, without subjectively or emotionally feeling a part of that state. Conversely, a person may feel that he belongs to one state without having any legal relationship to it. For example, children who were brought to the U.S. illegally when quite young and grow up there in ignorance of their immigration status often have a national identity of feeling American, despite legally being nationals of a different country.
 
==Dual nationality==
[[Dual nationality]] is when a single person has a formal relationship with two separate, sovereign states.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003" /> This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country claims all offspring of the mother's as their own nationals, but the father's country claims all offspring of the father's.
 
Nationality, with its historical origins in allegiance to a sovereign monarch, was seen originally as a permanent, inherent, unchangeable condition, and later, when a change of allegiance was permitted, as a strictly exclusive relationship, so that becoming a national of one state required rejecting the previous state.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003" />
 
Dual nationality was considered a problem that caused conflict between states and sometimes imposed mutually exclusive requirements on affected people, such as simultaneously serving in two countries' military forces. Through the middle of the 20th century, many international agreements were focused on reducing the possibility of dual nationality. Since then, many accords recognizing and regulating dual nationality have been formed.<ref name="TurnerIsin2003" />
 
==Statelessness==
[[Statelessness]] is the condition in which an individual has no formal or protective relationship with any state. This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country rejects all offspring of mothers married to foreign fathers, but the father's country rejects all offspring born to foreign mothers. Although this person may have an emotional national identity, he or she may not legally be the national of any state.
 
==See also==
* [[Blood quantum laws]]
* [[Demonym]]
* [[Imagined communities]]
* [[Intersectionality]]
* ''[[jus sanguinis]]''
* ''[[jus soli]]''
* [[List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations]]
*[[Nottebohm case|Nottebohm (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala)]], a 1955 case that is cited for its definitions of nationality
* [[Second-class citizen]]
 
==References==
<references />
 
==অতিরিক্ত পড়ুন==
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