"হাদ্রিয়ান" পাতাটির দুইটি সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

তথ্যসূত্র, বহিঃসংযোগ ও আরো পড়ুন+
(তথ্যসূত্র, বহিঃসংযোগ ও আরো পড়ুন+)
}}
হাদ্রিয়ান ({{lang-la|Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus}}<ref>In Classical Latin, Hadrian's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS AELIVS TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.</ref><ref>Inscription in Athens, year 112 AD: CIL III, 550 = InscrAtt 3 = IG II, 3286 = Dessau 308 = IDRE 2, 365: ''P(ublio) Aelio P(ubli) f(ilio) Serg(ia) Hadriano / co(n)s(uli) VIIviro epulonum sodali Augustali leg(ato) pro pr(aetore) Imp(eratoris) Nervae Traiani / Caesaris Aug(usti) Germanici Dacici Pannoniae inferioris praetori eodemque / tempore leg(ato) leg(ionis) I Minerviae P(iae) F(idelis) bello Dacico item trib(uno) pleb(is) quaestori Imperatoris / Traiani et comiti expeditionis Dacicae donis militaribus ab eo donato bis trib(uno) leg(ionis) II / Adiutricis P(iae) F(idelis) item legionis V Macedonicae item legionis XXII Primigeniae P(iae) F(idelis) seviro / turmae eq(uitum) R(omanorum) praef(ecto) feriarum Latinarum Xviro s(tlitibus) i(udicandis)'' //...(text in greek)</ref><ref>As emperor his name was ''Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus''.</ref> ২৪ জানুয়ারি, ৭৬ খ্রিস্টাব্দ – ১০ জুলাই, ১৩৮ খ্রিস্টাব্দ) ছিলেন একজন [[রোমান সাম্রাজ্য|রোমান সম্রাট]] যিনি ১১৭ থেকে ১৩৮ খ্রিস্টাব্দ পর্যন্ত শাষণ করেছেন। তিনি ইতালির রোমের সর্বদেবতার মন্দির নামে পরিচিত পেনথিওন মন্দিরটি পূননির্মাণ করেছিলেন এবং প্রাচীন রোমের সবচেয়ে বড় মন্দির [[Temple of Venus and Roma|ভেনাস ও রোমার মন্দিরটি]] নির্মান করেছিলেন। তিনি হদ্রিয়ান প্রাচীর নির্মাণের জন্যও পরিচিত যেটি রোমান ব্রিটেনের উত্তর দিক ঘেষে ছিল। ইউরোপীয় ঐতিহাসিকদের মতে, পাঁচজন নিষ্ঠাবান রোমান সম্রাটদের মধ্যে তৃতীয় ছিলেন সম্রাট হাদ্রিয়ান। অন্যরা হলেন নেরভা, ট্রাজান, আন্তোনিয়াস পিউস, মারকাস আউরেলিয়াস।
 
==নোট==
{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
==তথ্যসূত্র==
===প্রধান উৎস===
{{Reflist}}
*Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius ''Roman History''. [http://www.archive.org/stream/diosromanhistory08cassuoft#page/424/mode/2up Greek Text and Translation by Earnest Cary] at internet archive
*Scriptores Historiae Augustae, '[Augustan History''. [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Historia_Augusta/Hadrian/1*.html Latin Text] Translated by [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Historia_Augusta/Hadrian/1*.html David Magie]
*[[Aurelius Victor]], ''Caesares'', XIV. Latin {{cite web|url=http://www.intratext.com/IXT/LAT0199/__P5.HTM|title=Caesares: text – IntraText CT|publisher=Intratext.com |date=2007-05-04}}
*Anon, ''Excerpta'' of [[Aurelius Victor]]: ''[[Epitome de Caesaribus]]'', XIII. Latin {{cite web|url=http://www.intratext.com/IXT/LAT0210/__P5.HTM|title=Epitome De Caesaribus: text – IntraText CT|publisher=Intratext.com|date=2007-05-04|accessdate=2010-03-13}}
Inscriptions:
*[[Eusebius of Caesarea]], ''Church History (Book IV)'', {{cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250104.htm|title=Church History|publisher=www.newadvent.org|accessdate=2010-03-13}}
*Smallwood, E.M, ''Documents Illustrating the Principates of Nerva Trajan and Hadrian'', Cambridge, 1966.
 
===সেকেন্ডারি উৎস===
* {{cite journal|last=Barnes|first=T. D.|year=1967|title=Hadrian and Lucius Verus|jstor=299345|journal=Journal of Roman Studies|volume=57|issue=1/2|pages=65–79|doi=10.2307/299345}}
* {{cite book|last=Birley|first=Anthony R.|title=Hadrian. The restless emperor|location=London|publisher=Routledge|year=1997|isbn=0-415-16544-X}}
* {{cite journal|last=Canto|first=Alicia M.|year=2004|title=Itálica, ''patria'' y ciudad natal de Adriano (31 textos históricos y argumentos contra ''Vita Hadr''. 1, 3|journal=Athenaeum|volume=92.2|pages=367–408|url=http://dobc.unipv.it/dipscant/athenaeum/athenaeum.html}} {{dead link|date=March 2010}}
* {{cite book|last=Dobson|first=Brian|title=Hadrian's Wall|location=London|publisher=Penguin|year=2000}}
*[[Edward Gibbon|Gibbon, Edward]], ''[[The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire]]'', vol. I, 1776. The Online Library of Liberty {{cite web|url=http://oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=1365&Itemid=27 |title=Online Library of Liberty – The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 1 |publisher=Oll.libertyfund.org |date= |accessdate=2010-03-13}}
* {{cite book|last= Lambert|first=Royston|title=Beloved and God: the story of Hadrian and Antinous|location=London|publisher=Phoenix Giants|year=1997|isbn=1-85799-944-4}}
* {{cite book|last=Speller|first=Elizabeth|title=Following Hadrian: a second-century journey through the Roman Empire|location=London|publisher=Review|year=2003|isbn=0-7472-6662-X}}
* {{cite book|last=Syme|first=Ronald|authorlink=Ronald Syme|title=Tacitus|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|origyear=1958|year=1997|isbn=0-19-814327-3}}
* {{cite journal|last=Syme|first=Ronald|year=1964|title=Hadrian and Italica|journal=Journal of Roman Studies|volume=LIV|pages=142–9|doi=10.2307/298660}}
* {{cite journal|last=Syme|first=Ronald|year=1988|title=Journeys of Hadrian|journal=Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik|volume=73|pages=159–170|url=http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/ifa/zpe/downloads/1988/073pdf/073159.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2006-12-12}} Reprinted in {{cite book|last=Syme|first=Ronald|title=Roman Papers VI|location=Oxford|publisher=Clarendon Press|year=1991|isbn=0-19-814494-6|pages=346–357}}
* {{cite book|authorlink=Marguerite Yourcenar|last=Yourcenar|first=Marguerite|title=[[Memoirs of Hadrian]]|location= New York|publisher=Farrar, Straus and Giroux|origyear=1951|isbn=0-374-52926-4|year=2005}}
 
===আরো পড়ুন===
*{{cite book|last=Boatwright|first=Mary T.|title=Hadrian and the cities of the roman empire.|year=2003|publisher=Princeton Univ Press|location=Princeton|isbn=0-691-09493-4}}
*{{cite book|last=Danziger|first=Danny|title=Hadrian's empire : when Rome ruled the world|year=2006|publisher=Hodder & Stoughton|location=London|isbn=0-340-83361-0|coauthors=Purcell, Nicholas}}
*{{cite book|last=Everitt|first=Anthony|title=Hadrian and the triumph of Rome|year=2009|publisher=Random House|location=New York|isbn=978-1-4000-6662-9}}
*{{cite journal|last=Gray|first=William Dodge|title=A Study of the life of Hadrian Prior to His Accession|journal=Smith College Studies in History|year=1919|volume=4|pages=151–209}}
*{{cite book|last=Gregorovius|first=Ferdinand|title=The Emperor Hadrian: A Picture of the Greco-Roman World in His Time|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=D20G5zMpPfUC|year=1898|publisher=Macmillan|location=London|others=Mary E. Robinson, trans}}
*{{cite book|last=Henderson|first=Bernard W.|title=Life and Principate of the Emperor Hadrian|location=London|publisher=Methuen|year=1923}}
*{{cite book|last=Ish-Kishor|first=Sulamith|title=Magnificent Hadrian: A Biography of Hadrian, Emperor of Rome|year=1935|publisher=Minton, Balch and Co|location=New York}}
*{{cite book|last=Perowne|first=Stewart|authorlink=Stewart Perowne|title=Hadrian|year=1960|publisher=Hodder and Stoughton|location=London}}
 
==বহিঃসংযোগ==
{{Commons}}
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Historia_Augusta/Hadrian/1*.html Historia Augusta: Life of Hadrian]
* [http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/hadrian/t.html Hadrian coinage]
* [http://www.britishtours.com/rome/piazza_di_pietra.html Temple of Hadrian] QuickTime VR, Rome
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07104b.htm Catholic Encyclopedia article]
* [http://bsa.biblio.univ-lille3.fr/hadrien.htm A Bibliography]
* [http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/hadrian/ Major scultoric find at Sagalassos (Turkey)], 2 August 2007 (between 13 and 16&nbsp;feet in height, four to five meters), with [http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/hadrian/1.html some splendid photos courtesy of the Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project]
* [http://www.roman-emperors.org/hadrian.htm Hadrian, in: De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors]
* [http://www.britishmuseum.org/whats_on/future_exhibitions/hadrian.aspx Next exhibition on Hadrian in the British Museum], 24 July – 26 October 2008: "Hadrian, Empire and Conflict". Curator: Thorsten Opper
*[http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/the_tls/article4470548.ece "Emperor Hadrian, YouTube hero"]: a review by Tom Holland of the Hadrian Exhibition at the British Museum, [http://www.the-tls.co.uk TLS], 6 August 2008.
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{{s-hou|[[Nervan-Antonian dynasty]]|24 January|AD 76|10 July|AD 138}}
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{{succession box|title=[[List of Roman Emperors|Roman Emperor]]|before=[[Trajan]]|after=[[Antoninus Pius]]|years=117–138}}
{{succession box|title = [[List of early imperial Roman consuls|Consul]] of the [[Roman Empire]]|before = Quintus Aquilius Niger and Marcus Rebilus Apronianus||after = Lucius Catilius Severus Iulianus Claudius Reginus and [[Antoninus Pius]] |years = 118–119}}
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{{Roman Emperors}}
 
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