"বঙ্গ" পাতাটির দুইটি সংশোধিত সংস্করণের মধ্যে পার্থক্য

২৭,৬৮৮ বাইট যোগ হয়েছে ,  ১৪ বছর পূর্বে
==ইতিহাস==
{{মূল নিবন্ধ|বঙ্গের ইতিহাস}}
<!--[[Image:IndianBuddha11.JPG|thumb|[[Buddha]] and [[Bodhisattva]]s, [[11th century]], [[Pala Empire]]]]
[[Image:Clive.jpg|right|thumb|[[Robert Clive]], of British East India Company, after winning the<br> [[Battle of Plassey]] in 1757.]]
[[Image:Bengalpresidency 1858.jpg|right|thumb|The Bengal Presidency at its greatest extent in 1858]]
[[Image:Bengal map 1893.JPG|right|thumb|Map of the Bengal province, 1893]]
 
Remnants of human settlement in the Bengal region date back 4,000 years,<ref name=bsahistory>{{cite web
| url = http://www.orgs.ttu.edu/saofbangladesh/history.htm
| title = History of Bangladesh
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| publisher = Bangladesh Student Association
}}</ref><ref name=xinhua>{{cite news
| publisher = Xinhua
| date = 2006-March
| title = 4000-year old settlement unearthed in Bangladesh
| url = http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-03/12/content_4293312.htm
}}</ref> when the region was settled by [[Dravidian people|Dravidian]], [[Tibeto-Burman languages|Tibeto-Burman]] and [[Austro-Asiatic languages|Austro-Asiatic]] peoples. After the arrival of [[Indo-Aryans]], the kingdom of [[Magadha]] was formed in 7th century BCE, consisting of the Bihar and Bengal regions. It was one of the four main kingdoms of [[India]] at the time of [[Gautama Buddha|Buddha]] and consisted of several [[Janapadas]].<ref name=settlements/> One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land named [[Gangaridai]] by the [[Greeks]] around 100 BCE, speculated to be an area in Bengal.<ref name=Gangaridai>{{cite web
| url = http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/G_0019.htm
| title = Gangaridai
| accessdate = 2006-09-08
| last = Chowdhury
| first = AM
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref> From the 3rd to the 6th centuries [[Common Era|CE]], the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the [[Gupta Empire]].
 
The first recorded independent king of Bengal was [[Shashanka]], reigning around early 7th century.<ref name=shashankabanglaped>{{cite web
| url = http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/S_0122.htm
| title = Shashanka
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref> After a period of anarchy, the native [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] [[Pala Empire]] ruled the region for four hundred years, and expanded across the northern [[Indian subcontinent]] into [[Afghanistan]] during the reigns of [[Dharmapala of Bengal|Dharmapala]] and [[Devapala]]. The Pala dynasty was followed by a shorter reign of the [[Hindu]] [[Sena dynasty]]. [[Islam]] was introduced to Bengal in the twelfth century by [[Sufism|Sufi]] missionaries. Subsequent [[Muslim conquests]] helped spread Islam throughout the region.<ref name=islambanglaped>{{cite web
| url = http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/I_0103.htm
| title = Islam (in Bengal)
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref> [[Bakhtiyar Khalji|Bakhtiar Khilji]], a [[Turkic peoples|Turkic]] general of the [[Slave dynasty]] of [[Delhi Sultanate]], defeated [[Lakshman Sen]] of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of [[sultan]]s and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate for the next few hundred years. In the sixteenth century, Mughal general [[Islam Khan]] conquered Bengal. However, administration by governors appointed by the court of the [[Mughal Empire]] gave way to semi-independence of the area under the [[Nawab]]s of [[Murshidabad]], who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in [[Delhi]].
 
European traders arrived late in the fifteenth century. Their influence grew until the [[British East India Company]] gained taxation rights in Bengal ''[[subah]]'', or province, following the [[Battle of Plassey]] in 1757, when [[Siraj ud-Daulah]], the last independent Nawab, was defeated by the British.<ref name=sirajbanglaped>{{cite web
| url = http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/S_0411.htm
| title = Sirajuddaula
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| last1 = Chaudhury
| first1 = S
| last2 = Mohsin
| first2 = KM
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref> The [[Bengal Presidency]] was established by 1765, eventually including all British territories north of the [[Central Provinces]] (now [[Madhya Pradesh]]), from the mouths of the Ganges and the [[Brahmaputra]] to the [[Himalaya]]s and the [[Punjab region|Punjab]]. The [[Bengal famine of 1770]] claimed millions of lives.<ref name=famine1770>{{cite web
| url = http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/f/fiske/john/f54u/chapter9.html
| title = The Famine of 1770 in Bengal
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| last = Fiske
| first = John
| work = The Unseen World, and other essays
| publisher = University of Adelaide Library Electronic Texts Collection
}}</ref> Calcutta was named the capital of [[British India]] in 1772. The [[Bengal Renaissance]] and [[Brahmo Samaj]] socio-cultural reform movements had great impact on the cultural and economic life of Bengal. The failed [[Indian rebellion of 1857]] started near Calcutta and resulted in transfer of authority to the [[British monarchy|British Crown]], administered by the [[Viceroy of India]].<ref name=baxter2>{{Harv|Baxter|1997|pp=30-32}}</ref> Between 1905 and 1911, an [[Partition of Bengal (1905)|abortive attempt]] was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones.<ref name=baxter3>{{Harv|Baxter|1997|pp=39-40}}</ref>
 
Bengal played a major role in the [[Indian independence movement]], in which [[Revolutionary movement for Indian independence|revolutionary groups]] were dominant. Armed attempts against to overthrow the [[British Raj]] reached a climax when [[Subhash Chandra Bose]] led the [[Indian National Army]] against the British. Bengal was also central in the rising political awareness of the Muslim population &mdash; [[Muslim League]] was established in Dhaka in 1906. In spite of a last ditch effort to form a United Bengal,<ref name=unitedbengal>{{cite web
| url = http://www.banglapedia.net/HT/U_0020.HTM
| title = United Bengal Movement
| accessdate = 2007-02-06
| author = Chitta Ranjan Misra
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref> when India [[History of the Republic of India|gained independence]] in 1947, Bengal was [[Partition of Bengal (1947)|partitioned]] along religious lines.<ref name=parttionbanglaped>{{cite web
| url = http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/P_0101.htm
| title = Partition of Bengal, 1947
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| author = Harun-or-Rashid
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref> The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined [[Pakistan]] as a province called [[East Bengal]] (later renamed [[East Pakistan]], giving rise to [[Bangladesh]] in 1971). The circumstances of partition was bloody, with widespread religious riots in Bengal.<ref name=parttionbanglaped>{{cite web
| url = http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/P_0101.htm
| title = Partition of Bengal, 1947
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| author = Harun-or-Rashid
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref><ref name=calcuttakilling>{{cite web
| url = http://www.banglapedia.net/HT/C_0019.HTM
| title = Calcutta Riots (1946)
| accessdate = 2007-02-06
| author = Suranjan Das
| work = [[Banglapedia]]
| publisher = Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
}}</ref>
 
The post-partition political history of East and West Bengal diverged for the most part. Starting from the [[Language Movement]] of 1952.<ref name=baxter4>{{Harv|Baxter|1997|pp=62-63}}</ref>, political dissent against [[West Pakistan]]i domination grew steadily. [[Bangladesh Awami League|Awami League]], led by [[Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]], emerged as the political voice of the Bengali-speaking population of East Pakistan by 1960s.<ref name=baxter5>{{Harv|Baxter|1997|pp=78-79}}</ref> In 1971, the crisis deepened when Rahman was arrested and a [[Operation Searchlight|a sustained military assault]] was launched on East Pakistan.<ref name=salik>{{cite book
| last = Salik
| first = Siddiq
| year = 1978
| title = Witness to Surrender
| publisher = Oxford University Press
| id = ISBN 0-19-577264-4
}}</ref> Most of the Awami League leaders fled and set up a government-in-exile in West Bengal. The [[guerrilla warfare|guerrilla]] [[Mukti Bahini]] and Bengali regulars eventually received support from the [[Indian Armed Forces]] in December 1971, resulting in a decisive victory over Pakistan on [[16 December]] in the [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1971]].<ref name=burke>{{cite journal
| last = Burke
| first = S
| year = 1973
| title = The Postwar Diplomacy of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
| journal = Asian Survey
| volume = 13
| issue = 11
| pages = 1036-1049
}}</ref> The post independence history of Bangladesh was strife with conflict, with a long history of political assassinations and [[military coup|coups]] before parliamentary democracy was established in 1991. Since then, the political environment has been relatively stable.
 
[[West Bengal]], the western part of Bengal, became a state in India. In the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent [[Naxalite|Marxist-Naxalite]] movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The [[Bangladesh Liberation War]] of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure.<ref name="londonanthology">{{Harv|Bennett|Hindle|1996|pp=63-70}}</ref> West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the [[Left Front]] won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent [[Indian National Congress]]. The Left Front, led by [[CPI(M)]] has governed for the last three decades.<ref name=longcommu>{{cite news
|first = Soutik
|last = Biswas
|title = Calcutta's colourless campaign
|url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4909832.stm
|publisher = [[BBC]]
|date = 2006-04-16
|accessdate = 2006-08-26
}} </ref> The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after [[economic reforms in India]] were introduced in the mid-1990s by the [[Government of India|central government]], aided by election of a new reformist [[Chief Minister]] in 2000.
 
==Geography==
{{See also|Geography of West Bengal}}
[[Image:Panthera tigris.jpg|thumb|The Bengal Tiger]]
Most of the Bengal region in the low-lying [[Ganges]]–[[Brahmaputra]] River Delta or [[Ganges Delta]]. The Ganges Delta arises from the confluence of the rivers [[Ganges]], [[Brahmaputra River|Brahmaputra]], and [[Meghna River|Meghna]] rivers and their respective tributaries. The total area of Bengal is 232752 &nbsp;sq km &mdash; West Bengal is 88,752&nbsp;sq km and Bangladesh 144,000&nbsp;sq km.
 
Most parts of Bangladesh are within 10 meters (33&nbsp;ft) above the sea level, and it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 metre (3&nbsp;ft).<ref name=ali>{{cite journal
| last = Ali
| first = A
| year = 1996
| title = Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges
| journal = Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
| volume = 92
| issue = 1-2
| pages = 171-179
}}</ref>
The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052&nbsp;[[metre]]s (3,451&nbsp;[[foot (unit of length)|ft]]) in the [[Chittagong Hill Tracts]] to the southeast of the country.<ref>[http://www.sol.co.uk/v/viewfinder/elevmisquotes.html#keok Summit Elevations: Frequent Internet Errors.] Retrieved 2006-04-13.</ref> A major part of the coastline comprises a [[marsh]]y [[jungle]], the [[Sundarbans]], the largest [[mangrove]] forest in the world and home to diverse flora and fauna, including the [[Royal Bengal Tiger]]. In 1997, this region was declared endangered.<ref name=sundarbans>{{cite journal
| last = IUCN
| year = 1997
| title = Sundarban wildlife sanctuaries Bangladesh
| journal = World Heritage Nomination-IUCN Technical Evaluation
}}</ref>
 
West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the [[Himalaya]]s in the north to the [[Bay of Bengal]] in the south. The state has a total area of {{Unit area|sqkm|88752}}.<ref name=area>{{cite web
| url = http://www.indianmirror.com/geography/geo9.html| title = Statistical Facts about India
| accessdate = 2006-10-26| publisher = www.indianmirror.com
}}</ref> The [[Darjeeling Himalayan hill region]] in the northern extreme of the state belongs to the eastern [[Himalaya]]. This region contains [[Sandakfu]] ({{Unit length|m|3636}})&mdash;the highest peak of the state.<ref name=sandak>{{cite web
| url = http://yhaindia.org/sandakphu_trek.htm
| title = National Himalayan Sandakphu-Gurdum Trekking Expedition: 2006| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| publisher = Youth Hostels Association of India: West Bengal State Branch
}}</ref> The narrow [[Terai region]] separates this region from the plains, which in turn transitions into the [[Ganges delta]] towards the south. The [[Rarh region]] intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the [[western plateau and high lands]]. A small coastal region is on the extreme south, while the [[Sundarbans]] [[mangrove]] forests form a remarkable geographical landmark at the Ganges delta.
 
==Demographics==
{{main|Bengali people}}
[[Image:Dhaka-panorama.jpg|thumb|Dhaka is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world]]
 
About 210 million people live in Bengal, around 60% of them in Bangladesh and the remainder in West Bengal.<ref name=censuswb>{{cite web
| url = http://www.censusindia.net/profiles/wbe.html
| title = Provisional Population Totals: West Bengal
| accessdate = 2006-08-26
| work = Census of India, 2001
| publisher = Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
}}</ref><ref>Adjusted population, p.4,
{{cite web
| url = http://www.bbsgov.org/Population%20Census%202001.PDF
| publisher = Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
| title = Population Census 2001, Preliminary Report
| date = 2001-08
}}</ref> The population density in the area is more than 900/km²; making it among the most densely populated areas in the world.<ref name=censuswb/><ref name="WorldBank">[[World Bank Group|World Bank]] Development Indicators Database, 2006.</ref>
 
[[Bengali language|Bengali]] is the main language spoken in Bengal. [[English language|English]] is often used for official work. There are small minorities who speak [[Urdu]], [[Hindi]], [[Chakma language|Chakma]], and several other tribal languages. [[Nepali language|Nepali]] is spoken primarily by the [[Gorkha]]s of [[Darjeeling district]] of West Bengal.
 
Two major religions practiced in Bengal are [[Islam]] and [[Hinduism]]. In Bangladesh 88% of the population is Muslim (US State Department est. 2005) and 11% are Hindus (US State Dept. 2005). In West Bengal, Hindus are the majority with 72.5% of the population while [[Muslim]]s comprise 25%, and other religions make up the remainder.<ref name=relegionindia>{{cite web
| url = http://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/
| title = Data on Religion
| accessdate = 2006-08-26
| work = Census of India (2001)
| publisher = Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
}}</ref> Other religious groups include [[Buddhism in Bangladesh|Buddhists]], [[Christianity|Christians]], and [[animism|Animists]]. About 2% of the population is tribal.<ref name=hdrchap1/>
 
Life expectancy is around 63 years, and are almost same for the men and women.<ref name=expectancytogether>{{cite web
| url = http://www.indiatogether.org/health/infofiles/life.htm
| title = An Indian life: Life expectancy in our nation
| accessdate = 2006-08-26
| work = India Together
| publisher = Civil Society Information Exchange Pvt. Ltd
}}</ref><ref name=who>{{cite web
| url = http://www.who.int/whr/2005/en/
| title = World Health Report 2005
| publisher = World Health Organization
}}</ref> In terms of literacy, West Bengal leads with 69.22% literacy rate,<ref name=censuswb/> in Bangladesh the rate is approximately 41%.<ref name=undp>{{cite web
| url = http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/data/countries.cfm?c=BGD
| title = 2005 Human Development Report
| publisher = [[United Nations Development Programme|UNDP]]
}}</ref> The level of poverty is high, the proportion of people living below the poverty line is more than 30%.<ref name="unicef_stats">[http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bangladesh_bangladesh_statistics.html Bangladesh Country Statistics], [[United Nations Children's Fund|Unicef]]</ref> <ref name=hdrchap1>{{cite book
|title=West Bengal Human Development Report 2004
|origyear= 2004
|origmonth= May
|url= http://www.undp.org.in/hdrc/shdr/WB/
|format= PDF
|accessdate= 2006-08-26
|publisher= Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal
|id=ISBN 81-7955-030-3
|pages= pp4&ndash;6
|chapter= Introduction and Human Development Indices for West Bengal
|chapterurl= http://www.undp.org.in/hdrc/shdr/WB/WB%20HDR%202004/Chap1.pdf
}}</ref>
 
==Economy==
[[Image:BDricefield.jpg|thumb|Worker in a [[Paddy field|paddy]], a common scene all over Bengal]]
Agriculture is the leading occupation in the region. [[Rice]] is the staple food crop. Other food crops are pulses, vegetables, potato, maize, oil seeds etc. [[Jute]] is the principal [[cash crop]]. Tea is also produced commercially; the region is well known for [[Darjeeling tea|Darjeeling]] and other high quality teas. The [[service sector]] is the largest contributor to the [[gross domestic product]] of West Bengal, contributing 51% of the state domestic product compared to 27% from agriculture and 22% from industry.<ref name=IBEF1>{{cite web
| url = http://www.arc.unisg.ch/org/arc/web.nsf/1176ad62df2ddb13c12568f000482b94/43cf0caeed566faac12571d30061daac/$FILE/India%20Symposium_IBEF_State%20Reports_Westbengal.pdf
| title = The State Economy| accessdate = 2006-09-07| format = PDF| work = Indian States Economy and Business: West Bengal
| publisher = [[India Brand Equity Foundation]], [[Confederation of Indian Industry]]| pages = 9}}</ref> State industries are localized in the Kolkata region and the mineral-rich western highlands. Durgapur&ndash;Asansol colliery belt is home to a number of major steel plants.<ref name=webindiaeconomy>{{cite web
| url = http://www.webindia123.com/westbengal/economy/economy.htm| title = Economy| accessdate = 2006-09-07
| work = West Bengal| publisher = Suni System (P) Ltd}}</ref>
West Bengal has the third largest economy (2003&ndash;2004) in India, with a [[Net domestic product|net state domestic product]] of [[United States dollar|US$]] 21.5 billion.<ref name=IBEF1/> During 2001&ndash;2002, the state's average SDP was more than 7.8% &mdash; outperforming the National GDP Growth.<ref name=wbidc1>{{cite web
| url = http://www.wbidc.com/about_wb/index.html| title = Basic Information| accessdate = 2006-09-07| work = About West Bengal
| publisher = West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation}}</ref> The state has promoted [[foreign direct investment]], which has mostly come in the software and electronics fields;<ref name=Dasgupta>{{cite web| url=http://www-scf.usc.edu/~efinnega/econ.html| title=Dasgupta, 2002| accessdate=2006-04-11}}</ref> Kolkata is becoming a major hub for the [[Information technology]] (IT) industry. Owing to the boom in Kolkata's and the overall state's economy, West Bengal is now the third fastest growing economy in the country.<ref name=usconsulate>{{cite web| url=http://calcutta.usconsulate.gov/19oct2005.html| title=Consul General Henry V. Jardine to The Indo-American Chamber of Commerce, October 19, 2005| accessdate=2006-04-11}}</ref>
 
Since 1990, Bangladesh has achieved an average annual growth rate of 5% according to the World Bank, despite the hurdles. The [[middle class]] and the [[consumer]] industry have seen some growth. Bangladesh has seen a sharp increase in [[foreign direct investment]]. A number of [[multinational corporation]]s, including [[Unocal Corporation]] and [[Tata]], have made major investments, the [[natural gas]] sector being a priority. In December 2005, the [[Bangladesh Bank|Central Bank of Bangladesh]] projected GDP growth around 6.5%.<ref name="bdbank1">[http://www.bangladesh-bank.org/pub/annual/anreport/annual.html Annual Report 2004-2005, Bangladesh Bank]</ref> Although two-thirds of Bangladeshis are farmers, more than three quarters of Bangladesh’s export earnings come from the [[garment industry]],<ref name=garments>{{cite news
| last = Roland
| first = B
| date = 2005
| title = Bangladesh Garments Aim to Compete
| publisher = BBC
| url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4118969.stm
}}</ref>
which began attracting foreign investors in the 1980s due to cheap labour and low conversion cost. In 2002, the industry exported US$5 billion worth of products.<ref name=rahman>{{cite journal
| last = Rahman
| first = S
| year = 2004
| title = Global Shift: Bangladesh Garment Industry in Perspective
| journal = Asian Affairs
| volume = 26
| issue = 1
| Pages = 75-91
}}</ref>
The industry now employs more than 3 million workers, 90% of whom are women.<ref name=begum>{{cite book
| last = Begum
| first = N
| chapter = Enforcement of Safety Regulations in Garment sector in Bangladesh
| title = Proc. Growth of Garment Industry in Bangladesh: Economic and Social dimension
| year = 2001
| pages = 208-226
}}</ref>
A large part of foreign currency earnings also comes from the remittances sent by [[expatriate]]s living in other countries.
 
One significant contributor to the development of the economy of Bangladesh has been the widespread propagation of [[microcredit]] by [[Grameen Bank]] and other similar orgamizations. Together, these organizations had about 5 million members by late 1990s.<ref name=schreiner>{{cite journal
| last = Schreiner
| first = Mark
| year = 2003
| title = A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh,
| journal = Development Policy Review
| volume = 21
| issue = 3
| pages = 357-382
}}</ref>
 
==Culture==
[[Image:394 baul-singers-sml.jpg|thumb|Baul singers at [[Basanta-Utsab]], [[Shantiniketan]]]]
[[Image:Pohela boishakh 2.jpg|right|thumb|[[Pohela Baishakh]] celebration in Dhaka]]
[[Image:Bengali wedding edit1.jpg|right|thumb|Bride and groom wearing traditional [[Bengali wedding]] costumes]]
The common [[Bengali language]] and culture anchors the shared tradition of two parts of politically divided Bengal. Bengal has a long tradition in folk literature, evidenced by the ''[[Charyapada]]'', ''[[Mangalkavya]]'', ''[[Shreekrishna Kirtana]]'', ''[[Maimansingha Gitika]]'' or ''[[Thakurmar Jhuli]]''. Bengali literature in the medieval age was often either religious (e.g. [[Chandidas]]), or adaptations from other languages (e.g. [[Alaol]]). During the [[Bengal Renaissance]] of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, [[Bengali literature]] was modernized through the works of authors such as [[Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay]], [[Rabindranath Tagore]] and [[Kazi Nazrul Islam]].
 
The [[Baul]] tradition is a unique heritage of Bangla folk music.<ref name=baulbengalonline>{{cite web
| url = http://bengalonline.sitemarvel.com/bengali-folklore.asp?art=baul
| title = The Bauls of Bengal
| accessdate = 2006-10-26
| work = Folk Music
| publisher = BengalOnline
}}</ref> Other folk music forms include [[Gombhira]], [[Bhatiali]] and [[Bhawaiya]]. Folk music in Bengal is often accompanied by the [[ektara]], a one-stringed instrument. Other instruments include the [[dotara]], [[dhol]], [[flute]], and [[tabla]]. The region also has an active heritage in [[Hindustani classical music|North Indian classical music]].
 
Rice and fish are traditional favorite foods, leading to a saying that in Bengali, ''machhe bhate bangali'', that translates as "fish and rice make a Bengali".<ref name=machhe>{{cite web
| url = http://govdocs.aquake.org/cgi/reprint/2003/1201/12010300.pdf
| title = Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh
| accessdate = 2006-10-22
| author = Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif
| publisher = Aqua KE Government
}}</ref> Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes [[Hilsa]] preparations, a favorite among Bengalis. Bengalis make distinctive [[confectionary|sweetmeat]]s from milk products, including ''[[Rasgulla|Rôshogolla]]'', ''Chômchôm'', and several kinds of ''[[Pithe]]''.
 
Bengali women commonly wear the ''[[sari|shaŗi]]'' and the [[salwar kameez]], often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. In urban areas, many women and men wear Western-style attire. Among men, European dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear traditional costumes such as the ''[[kurta|panjabi]]'' with ''[[dhoti|dhuti]]'' or ''[[pyjama]]'', often on religious occasions. The [[lungi]], a kind of long skirt, is widely worn by Bangladesh men.
 
The greatest religious festivals are the two [[Eid]]s ([[Eid ul-Fitr]] and [[Eid ul-Adha]]) for the Muslims, and the autumnal [[Durga|Durga Puja]] for Hindus.<ref name=durgapuja>{{cite web
| url = http://www.wbtourism.com/fairs_festivals/durga.htm
| title = Durga Puja
| accessdate = 2006-10-28
| work = Festivals of Bengal
| publisher = West Bengal Tourism, Government of West Bengal
}}</ref> [[Christmas]] (called ''Bôŗodin'' (Great day) in Bangla), [[Vesak|Buddha Purnima]] are other major religious festivals. Other festivities include [[Pohela Baishakh]] (the Bengali New Year), [[Basanta-Utsab]], [[Nobanno]], and ''Poush parbon'' (festival of [[Poush]]).
 
[[Bengali cinema]] are made both in Kolkata and Dhaka. The Kolkata film industry is older and particularly well known for its [[art film]]s. Its long tradition of film making has produced acclaimed [[Film director|directors]] like [[Satyajit Ray]], while contemporary directors include [[Buddhadev Dasgupta]] and [[Aparna Sen]]. Dhaka also has a vibrant commercial industry and more recently has been home to critically acclaimed directors like [[Tareque Masud]]. Mainstream Hindi films of [[Bollywood]] are also quite popular in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Around 200 dailies are published in Bangladesh, along with more than 1800 periodicals. West Bengal had 559 published newspapers in 2005,<ref name=rniindia>{{cite web
| url = https://rni.nic.in/pii.htm
| title = General Review
| accessdate = 2006-09-01
| publisher = Registrar of Newspapers for India
}}</ref> of which 430 were in Bangla.<ref name=rniindia/> [[Cricket]] and [[Football (soccer)|football]] are popular sports in the Bengal region. Local games include sports such as [[Kho Kho]] and [[Kabaddi]], the later being the national sport of Bangladesh. Recently, a Indo-Bangladesh ''Bangla Games'' was organized among the athletes of the Bengali speaking areas of the two countries.<ref name=indobangla>{{cite web
| url = http://www.zeenews.com/znnew/articles.asp?aid=356408&sid=REG
| title = Indo-Bangla games inaugurated
| accessdate = 2007-09-02
| publisher = Zee News
}}</ref> --!>
 
==আরও দেখুন==
{{col-begin}}
{{col-2}}
* [[পশ্চিমবঙ্গ]]
* [[বাংলাদেশ]]
* [[পূর্ব বাংলা]]
* [[বাঙালি জাতি]]
* [[বাঙালির তালিকা]]
* [[বাংলা ভাষা]]
* [[বাংলা খাবার]]
{{col-2}}
* [[বঙ্গীয় সংস্কৃতি]]
* [[বঙ্গের ধর্ম]]
* [[বাংলা সঙ্গীত]]
* [[বাংলা সিনেমা]]
* [[বঙ্গের ললিতকলা]]
* [[বঙ্গের স্হাপত্য]]
{{col-end}}
 
==তথ্যসূত্র==
১,২৭৪টি

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