নব্য নাৎসিবাদ হলো দ্বিতীয় বিশ্বযুদ্ধ-পরবর্তী আন্দোলন, যা নাৎসিবাদকে পুনরুজ্জীবিত করতে বদ্ধ পরিকর। The specific policies of neo-Nazi groups differ, but they often include allegiance to Adolf Hitler, antisemitism, racism, xenophobia (towards non-whites), nationalism, white supremacy, militarism and homophobia. Neo-Nazis often use the symbols of Nazi Germany, such as the Swastika, Sig Runes and the red-white-black color scheme. Some groups and individuals who support the ideology openly declare themselves as Nazis or neo-Nazis, but others eschew those terms to avoid social stigma or legal consequences. Some European countries have laws prohibiting the expression of pro-Nazi, racist or anti-Semitic views; thus no significant political party describes itself as neo-Nazi in those countries. Neo-Nazi activity appears to be a global phenomenon, with organized representation in many countries, as well as international networks. It has appeared even in Israel.[১] Individuals who have attempted to revive Nazism include Colin Jordan, George Lincoln Rockwell, Savitri Devi,Kyle Benyi Francis Parker Yockey, William Pierce, Eddy Morrison, and David Myatt.

হলোকাস্ট বা ইহুদিনিধনযজ্ঞ অস্বীকার ও অবমূল্যায়নসম্পাদনা

Many neo-Nazis promote Holocaust denial. They claim that the intentional mass murder—often in gas chambers—of more than 6,000,000 Jews is a lie or grossly exaggerated. Most people accuse them of using Holocaust denial to make Nazism more palatable by removing its association with genocide. Some Holocaust deniers don't identify as neo-Nazis, while some, such as David Cole, are actually Jewish. Some neo-Nazis who don't deny the Holocaust have pointed out alleged immoral equivalencies (e.g. the bombing of Dresden and the Expulsion of Germans after World War II), or have justified executions by the Nazis as retaliations for sabotage, terrorism and subversion.

Leading historians' estimates of the number of Jews who died during the Holocaust range from 5.1 to 6.2 million.[২][৩][৪][৫][৬]

অস্ট্রিয়াসম্পাদনা

Immediately after the Allies liberated Austria in 1945, the anti-Nazi parties - Socialists (SPÖ), Conservatives (ÖVP) and Communists (KPÖ) - passed legislation to overcome the effects of Nazi rule. A law passed on May 8, 1945, banned the NSDAP and Nazi activities. The denazification program designed to purge the state apparatus and society of Nazi followers was not successful, mainly because of the size of the problem and the bureaucratic shortcomings of the program. This failure was reflected primarily in the fact that ex-members and sympathizers of the NSDAP did not change their beliefs. Over 500,000 registered Nazis were allowed to vote in the 1949 general election.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] A considerable number of ex-Nazis were integrated into the SPÖ and the ÖVP, and several concessions were made to appease them, such as suppression of the history of the Nazizeit (literally 'Nazi Time'); a fall-off in the prosecutions of Nazi war criminals; and the reinstatement of Nazi civil servants, teachers, professors, lawyers and police officers.

In the 1949 Austrian elections, ex-Nazis in the Verband der Unabhängigen (VdU) put up candidates and won seats, and the Austrian right wing went through a process of growth. The withdrawal of Allied troops from Austria in 1955 encouraged the consolidation of right-wing groups, ranging from neo-Nazis to moderate Pan-Germans. The VdU split in 1955, but re-formed itself one year later as the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). The first leaders of the FPÖ were former Nazis, such as Anton Reinthaller, who had been a government minister in the Nazi era, and Friedrich Peter, who had been a Schutzstaffel (SS) officer. The Austrian public saw itself confronted with the organized right for the first time in 1959, during the Schiller Celebrations, when Pan-German youth, sport and cultural organizations took to the streets. The Burschenschaften and schlagende Verbindungen (fraternities of male uniformed students), the FPÖ's students' organization RFS and its graduate equivalent Freiheitliche Akademikerverbände (FAV) attained considerable influence within student and university bodies.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]

১৯৬০-এর দশক এবং পরবর্তী সময়েসম্পাদনা

টেমপ্লেট:Antisemitism In the 1960s, right-wing extremists, along with German Kameraden, gained notoriety by involvement in terrorist acts in the Italian province of Bolzano-Bozen.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] Prominent among these was Norbert Burger, the ex-RFS leader and subsequent chairman of the neo-Nazi Nationaldemokratische Partei (NDP). The influence that the extreme right had gained in the universities became dramatically apparent five years later, during the Borodajkewycz Affair. Hundreds of students demonstrated in favor of the anti-semitic university professor Borodajkewycz, and were involved in street battles — in the course of which Ernst Kirchweger, a former concentration camp inmate, was beaten to death.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]

During the 1960s and 1970s, Friedrich Peter, Chairman of the FPÖ, started establishing his party within the democratic party system — leading up to the entry of the FPÖ into a coalition government with the Socialists in 1983. This development led to the formation of a group around Norbert Burger (condemned in absentia by an Italian court for terrorist offenses in Bolzano-Bozen), which split from the FPÖ in 1966 and set up the NDP. In contrast to its German counterpart of the same name, the Austrian NDP found little resonance in an electorate moving to the left in the late 1960s. In 1972, Kurt Waldheim, an Austrian Nazi, had been elected United Nations Secretary General. Waldheim's election had caused anger among some people who had lost relatives in the Holocaust, as well as anti-UN groups who theorized the UN was supportive of totalitarian ideologies.

The volume "Rechtsextremismus in Österreich seit 1945", issued by DÖW in 1979, listed nearly 50 active extreme right-wing organizations in Austria. Their influence waned gradually, partly due to liberalization programs in secondary schools and universities that emphasized Austrian identity and democratic traditions. Votes for the RFS in student elections fell from 30% in the 1960s to 2% in 1987. In the 1995 elections for the student representative body Österreichische Hochschülerschaft, the RFS got 4% of the vote. The FPÖ won 22% of the votes at the General Election in the same year.[৭] In the 1980s, in the province of Carinthia, border issues with Slovenia — and disagreements over the rights of Carinthia's Slovenian minority — were used to orchestrate support for the far right organization Kärntner Heimatdienst.

বেলজিয়ামসম্পাদনা

A Belgian neo-Nazi organization, Bloed-Bodem-Eer-Trouw (Blood, Land, Honour and Faithfulness), was created in 2004 after splitting from the international network (Blood and Honour). The group rose to public prominence in September 2006, after 17 members (including 11 soldiers) were arrested under the December 2003 anti-terrorist laws and laws against racism, anti-semitism and negationism. According to Justice Minister Laurette Onkelinx and Interior Minister Patrick Dewael, the suspects (11 of whom were members of the military) were preparing terrorist attacks in order to "destabilize" Belgium.[৮][৯] According to journalist Manuel Abramowicz, of the Resistances network, the ultras of the radical right have always had as its aim to "infiltrate the state mechanisms," including the army in the 1970s and the 1980s, through Westland New Post and the Front de la Jeunesse.[১০]

A police operation, which mobilized 150 agents, searched five military barracks in Leopoldsburg near the Dutch border: Kleine-Brogel, Peer, Brussels (Royal military school) and Zedelgem — as well as 18 private addresses in Flanders. They found weapons, munitions, explosives, and a homemade bomb large enough to make "a car explode." The leading suspect, B.T., was organizing the trafficing of weapons, and was developing international links, in particular with the Dutch far right movement De Nationale Alliantie[১১][১২][১৩][১৪][১৫][১৬]

ক্রোয়েশিয়াসম্পাদনা

Neo-Nazis in Croatia base their ideology on the writings of Ante Starčević and Ante Pavelić.[১৭][১৮][১৯][২০] At the end of World War II, many of Pavelić's Ustaše members fled to the West, where they found sanctuary and continued their political and terrorist activities (which were tolerated because of Cold War hostilities).[২১] The resurgence of the Ustaše movement in post-war Croatia is partly due to the financial support of Ustaše members who emigrated to the Croatian Democratic Union during the 1990s.[২২]

Jonathan Levy, one of the lawyers representing plaintiffs in a 1999 lawsuit against the Vatican Bank (Institute for Religious Works), the Franciscan order, and the Croatian Liberation Movement (the Ustaše), the National Bank of Switzerland and others, said: "Many are still terrified of the Ustashe, the Serbs particularly. Unlike the Nazi Party, the Ustashe still exist and have a party headquarters in Zagreb." [২৩]

In 1999, Zagreb's Square of the Victims of Fascism was renamed The Square of The Great Men of Croatia, provoking widespread criticism of Croatia's attitude toward the Holocaust.[২৪] Many streets in Croatia were renamed after the prominent Ustaše figure Mile Budak, which provoked outrage amongst the Serbian minority. Since 2002, there has been a reversal of this development, and streets with the name of Mile Budak or other persons connected with the Ustaše movement are few or non-existent.[২৫] A plaque in Slunj with the inscription "Croatian Knight Jure Francetić" was erected to commemorate Francetić, the notorious Ustaše leader of the Black Legion.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] The plaque remained there for four years, until it was removed by the authorities.[২৫][২৬][২৭]

Post-war support for Ustaše is also visible in the form of graffiti. The most common is the serif letter U, representing Ustaše (sometimes embellished with a cross, and/or the letters NDH). There have also been instances of more explicit hate speech, such as the phrase Srbe na vrbe! (meaning "hang Serbs on the willow trees!"). An Orthodox church was spray-painted with pro-Ustaše graffiti in 2004.[২৮][২৯] Police have sped up responses to the appearance of extreme right wing graffiti and other hate-based vandalism.[৩০]

During some protests in Croatia, supporters of Ante Gotovina and other suspected war criminals have carried nationalist symbols and pictures of Ante Pavelić.[৩১] In 2003, an attempt was made to amend the Croatian penal code by adding articles prohibiting the public display of Nazi symbols, the propagation of Nazi ideology, historical revisionism and holocaust denial. However, this attempt was prevented by the Croatian constitutional court in the same year.[৩২] In 2005, the Croatian government made a move toward the Nazi-era law interpretation and practice, by granting to the Croatian parliament the exclusive right to interpret and authenticate the law.[৩৩] An amendment was added in 2006 to prohibit any type of hate crime based on factors such as race, color, gender, sexual orientation, religion or national origin.[৩৪] In 2007, Austrian authorities launched a criminal investigation into the widespread display of Ustaše symbols at the May 12 gathering of Croatian nationalists in Bleiburg, Austria.[৩৫][৩৬]

Thompson, a popular Croatian singer, has sung "Jasenovac i Gradiška Stara" in his concerts. That song glorifies the Ustaše and their genocide of the Serbs His May 17, 2007 concert in Zagreb was attended by 60000 people, many of them wearing Ustaše uniforms. Some gave Ustaše salutes, and shouted the Ustaše slogan "Za dom spremni" (For home[land] ready) en-masse. This event prompted the Jerusalem office of the Simon Wiesenthal Center to publicly address a protest to the Croatian president, Stjepan Mesić.[৩৭][৩৮][৩৯][৪০][৪১]

ফ্রান্সসম্পাদনা

Neo-Nazi organizations in France include the Bloc identitaire, created by former members of Christian Bouchet's Unité Radicale group. Close to national bolshevism and Third Position ideologies, Unité Radicale was dissolved in 2002 following Maxime Brunerie's assassination attempt on July 14, 2002 against then President Jacques Chirac. Christian Bouchet had previously been a member of Nouvelle Résistance (NR), an off-shoot of Troisième Voie (Third Way) which described itself as "nationalist revolutionary." Although the NR opposed at first the "national conservatives" of Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front, it finally changed strategy, advocating as slogan "Less Leftism! More Fascism! [৪২]" The NR was also a successor to Jean-François Thiriart's Jeune Europe Neo-Nazi Europeanist movement of the 1960s, which had participated to the National Party of Europe, along with Oswald Mosley's Union Movement, Otto Strasser and others.

জার্মানিসম্পাদনা

In Germany immediately after World War II, Allied forces and the new German government attempted to prevent the creation of new Nazi movements through a process known as denazification. The West German government had passed strict laws prohibiting Nazis from publicly expressing their beliefs as well as barring them from the political process. Displaying the swastika was an offense punishable by up to one year imprisonment. There was little overt neo-Nazi activity in Europe until the 1960s. However, some former Nazis retained their political beliefs, and passed them down to new generations.

 
A militant neo-Nazi holding a rifle.

After German reunification in the 1990s, neo-Nazi groups gained more followers, mostly among disaffected teenagers in the former East Germany. Many were new groups that arose amidst the economic collapse and high unemployment in the former East Germany. They have also had an aversion to people from Slavic countries (especially Poland) and people of other national backgrounds who moved from the former West Germany into the former German Democratic Republic after Germany was reunited. Their ideology was similar to that of Otto Strasser (Strasserism).

কার্যকলাপসম্পাদনা

German neo-Nazis have attacked accommodations for refugees and migrant workers in Hoyerswerda (September 17-September 22, 1991); Rostock-Lichtenhagen (August 23-August 27, 1992); and Schwedt, Eberswalde, Eisenhüttenstadt, Elsterwerda (October 1991). A May 29, 1993 neo-Nazi arson attack on the house of a Turkish family in Solingen resulted in the deaths of two women and three girls, as well as in severe injuries for seven other people. Neo-Nazis were involved in the murders of three Turkish girls in a November 23, 1992 arson attack in Mölln, in which nine other people were injured.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] These events preceded demonstrations in many German cities involving hundreds of thousands of people protesting against far right violence.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] These protests precipitated massive neo-Nazi counter-demonstrations and violent clashes between neo-Nazis and anti-fascists. Official German statistics record 178 violent crimes motivated by right-wing extremism in 1990.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] Statistics show that in 1991, there were 849 hate crimes, and in 1992 there were 1,485 (with a significant concentration in the eastern Bundesländer). After 1992, the numbers went down, although they have risen sharply in subsequent years. In the former East Germany, an average of 17 people have been murdered every year by far right groups.[৪৩]

লিগাল ইস্যুসমূহসম্পাদনা

German law forbids the production of pro-Nazi materials, so such items are smuggled into the country mostly from the United States, Scandinavia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Italy.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] Neo-Nazi rock bands such as Landser have been outlawed in Germany, yet bootleg copies of their albums printed in the US and other countries are still sold in the country.

 
Some neo-Nazis make use the Reichskriegflagge.

An American neo-Nazi group called NSDAP/AO runs an illegal smuggling ring, for supplying pro-Nazi materials to neo-Nazis in Europe and other locations where such materials are banned by law. NSDAP/AO supplies items such as magazines, CDs, posters, portraits, clothing, patches, stickers, pamphlets.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]

German neo-Nazi websites mostly depend on Internet servers in the US and Canada, and use other terms for Nazi ideas and symbols. They also invent new symbols reminiscent of the swastika and adopt other symbols used by the Nazis, such as the sun disc, sun wheel, hooked cross, wolf's cross, wolf's hook, black sun, and dark star. A trial was held before the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany over the prohibition of the National Democratic Party (NPD), which had been accused of being a neo-Nazi party.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] In the course of the trial, it was discovered that some high-ranking party members worked as informants for the domestic intelligence service, the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. The trial was temporarily suspended, and then rejected by the court because of the unclear influence of informants within the NPD.

In 2004, NPD received 9.1% of the vote in the parliamentary elections for Saxony, thus earning the right to seat local parliament members.[৪৪] The other parties refused to enter discussions with the NPD. In the 2006 parliamentary elections for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the NPD received 7.3% of the vote and six seats in the local parliament. Other neo-Nazi groups that have been active in Germany and have attracted government attention include the Volkssozialistische Bewegung Deutschlands/Partei der Arbeit (which was banned in 1982), the Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists (banned in 1983), the Nationalist Front (banned in 1992), the Free German Workers' Party of Michael Kühnen and Friedhelm Busse, the German Alternative and National Offensive.

গ্রিসসম্পাদনা

The most notable Greek neo-Nazi political organization is Hrisi Avgi. Hrisi Avgi holds 10 offices across Greece, and publishes a monthly youth magazine and a weekly newspaper.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] Neo-Nazis in Greece are influenced by the Metaxas quasi-fascist dictatorship, the Security Battalions during the Second World War, and the collaborationist regimes which were placed in power by the Nazis during the German occupation of Greece (1940-1944) — such as those of Tsolakoglou, Ioannis Rallis and Logothetopoulos.

Neo-Nazis in Greece have been tied to hate-driven attacks on immigrants, homosexuals and leftists. One of the most deadly attacks was the murder of three immigrants in central Athens by Pandelis Kazakos.[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন] Twelve Greek neo-Nazis participated as volunteers in the Yugoslav wars in Bosnia, aiding the Serbian Army in capturing the town of Srebrenica.[৪৫] Greek neo-Nazis have been active in football hooliganism. In September 2004, during a football match between Albania and Greece, Albanian hooligans set the Greek flag on fire, so members of Hrisi Avgi and The Blue Army (a nationalist group of football fans) launched a series of riots. They targeted Albanian immigrants in Greece, killing one and wounding seven.

ইসরাঈলসম্পাদনা

In August of 2007, eight Israel citizens (aged 16–21) from the former USSR were arrested on 15 charges of "carrying out attacks on foreigners, gay people and religious Jews."[৪৬][৪৭] In their homes police found "Nazi uniforms, portraits of Adolf Hitler, knives, guns and TNT."[৪৬] The arrests were the result of a year-long investigation after a synagogue in Petah Tikva was vandalized with Swastika images and graffiti including the name Adolf Hitler.[৪৬] The gang videotaped themselves "proclaiming their allegiance to Adolf Hitler with a Nazi salute."[৪৮] They also taped themselves beating gays, religious Jews, and drug addicts. The suspects admitted to assaulting people in Tel Aviv, mostly foreign workers.[৪৬] All of the suspects had migrated to Israel under the Law of Return, "which allows anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent to become a citizen."[৪৬] Investigative officer Revital Almog said of the accused, "their connection to Judaism is distant, through grandparents or distant family connections".[৪৬] Israeli experts on Russian-speaking émigrés "say a small minority have embraced Nazi beliefs…being influenced by a rise in fascism in their former homelands."[৪৭] Zalman Gilichenski, of the Information Centre for Victims of Anti-Semitism, told reporters that "neo-Nazi behaviour among some immigrants is encouraged by links they maintain with racist groups in Russia. …There are other groups like these in almost every city in Israel."[৪৭] The outrage caused by the story of neo-nazis in Israel has led to a call to reform the Law of Return[৪৮] and "for the law to be changed to permit the revocation of Israeli citizenship and deportation for neo-Nazis."[৪৭] Others argue that changing immigration laws will be against the state’s interest in the face of "the demographic challenge to the Jewish state from a growing Israeli Arab and Palestinian population."[৪৭]

রাশিয়াসম্পাদনা

চিত্র:Bookcover The ABC of a Russian Nationalist.jpg
Bookcover of The ABC of a Russian Nationalist by A.P. Barkashov

The post-Soviet era has seen the rise of a variety of extreme nationalist movements in Russia, some of which are openly neo-fascist or neo-Nazi. Neo-Nazi groups of Russia are characterized by extreme xenophobia towards non-whites, racism, Islamophobia, and antisemitism.

সামাজিক শেকড়সম্পাদনা

The collapse of the Soviet economic system in the early 1990s caused great economic and social problems,including widespread unemployment and poverty. Several far right paramilitary organizations were able to tap into popular discontent, particularly among the marginalized, lesser educated, and habitually unemployed youth. Of the three major age groups — youths, adults, and the elderly — youths may have been hit the hardest. The elderly suffered due to inadequate (or unpaid) pensions, but they found effective political representation in the Communists, and generally had their concerns addressed through better budget allocations. Adults, although often suffering financially and psychologically due to job losses, were generally able to find new sources of income. Moreover, Soviet-era indoctrination into the ideals of egalitarianism predisposed most adults against the message of right-wing extremists. Younger Russians were much less likely to have such inclinations.

আদর্শ বা দর্শনসম্পাদনা

Russian neo-Nazi organizations have generally defined themselves as standing outside of the political process, disdaining the electoral system and advocating the overthrow of the government by force. Their ideology has centered on defending Russian national identity against what they perceive as a takeover by minority groups such as Jews, Muslims and Caucasian immigrants. Cleansing the nation by killing or expelling Muslims, Jews and dark-skinned people has been a generally accepted goal for Russian neo-Nazis. Their ideology became epitomized in the slogan "Russia for the Russians", a catchphrase also adopted by less extreme factions. Russian neo-Nazis have generally not outlined discernible economic programs. They have openly admired and imitated the German Nazis and Adolf Hitler, and Hitler's book Mein Kampf stood high on their reading list. The most prominent organization, Russian National Union, led by Aleksandr Barkashov, adopted a three-ray Swastika as its emblem (the German Nazi swastika can be thought of consisting of two rays; the Z shaped segments).

কর্মপ্রণালীসম্পাদনা

Russian neo-Nazis have made it an explicit goal to take over the country by force, and have put serious effort into preparing for this. Paramilitary organizations operating under the guise of sports clubs have trained their members in squad tactics and weapons handling. They have stockpiled and used weapons, often illegally. Reputedly, many were interested in martial arts and unarmed combat, and have organized realistic hand to hand combat classes. Russian neo-Nazis' most notable action so far was their participation in the armed defense of the Supreme Soviet building against government forces during the standoff between Boris Yeltsin and the Communist-dominated parliament in 1993.[যাচাই প্রয়োজন]

On August 15, 2007, Russian authorities arrested a student for allegedly posting a video on the Internet which appears to show two Muslim, migrant workers being executed in front of a red and black swastika flag. Alexander Verkhovsky, the head of a Moscow-based center that monitors hate crime in Russia, said, "It looks like this is the real thing. The killing is genuine...There are similar videos from the Chechen war. But this is the first time the killing appears to have been done intentionally." [৪৯] A Russian neo-nazi group called the National Socialists of Rus claimed responsibility for the murders.

সার্বিয়াসম্পাদনা

There are several Neo-Nazi groups and organizations in Serbia. While Neo-Nazism in Germany mostly focuses on racial and political intolerance, Neo-Nazism in Serbia is mostly based on national and religious intolerance.[৫০]

Nacionalni stroj (National Alignment), a Neo-Nazi organization from the Serbian region of Vojvodina, orchestrated several incidents in 2005. Those incidents included anti-Semitic graffiti and posters, posters glorifying the Srebrenica massacre, physical harassment at an anti-fascist meeting at the University of Novi Sad, attacks on Albanians and Roma. In the late 2005, the charges were pressed against 18 of the leading members in Novi Sad [৫১][৫২]

While most of the public said that such incidents were "a threat to the democratic development and the European perspectives of Serbia", the Serbian Radical Party, a major player in Serbian politics, explained the event as "the expected reaction of Serbian patriots".[৫৩]

The Blood and Honor skinhead organization has its branch in Serbia, where it is called Krv i čast. On their official web site, members of the Serbian branch claim they intend "to propagate revolutionary idea of National Socialism without compromise. Also, the intention of Serbian Blood and Honour Division is to motivate all NS followers to radical activities and not only to passive observing or listening to the music."[৫৪] This organization, with chapters in several Serbian cities, organized several memorial concerts on the anniversary of Hitler's birth, starting in 2001.[৫৫][৫৬]

There were several attacks on Roma by skinhead gangs.[৫৭]

In 2001, Belgrade had its first Gay Parade. A crowd of skinheads, clerics, soccer fans and ultranationalists attacked the participants, seriously injuring several of them, and succeeded in stopping the event.[৫৮]

In 2006, two Israeli citizens were severely beaten by a group of skinheads wearing Nazi symbols in a Belgrade park. It was not the first such anti-Jewish and racist attack by skinheads and other such groups in Serbia, said the Serbian Jewish Community.[৫৯]

মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্রসম্পাদনা

In the United States, neo-Nazi groups are a sub-type of a wider array of anti-Semitic and white supremacist groups. American neo-Nazi groups tend to pay homage to — but are often less focused on — the specific tenets of the NSDAP than some neo-Nazi groups in other countries[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]. Neo-Nazi groups in the United States can be traced back to the 1920s, with the US branch of the Nazi Party. This organization merged with Free Society of Teutonia to form the German-American Bund. The Bund and other groups achieved a limited popularity in the 1930s (at one point staging a rally with over 20,000 people), but rapidly faded with the onset of the Second World War. The groups either disbanded or were dismantled by force during the war period. After the war, new organizations formed, with varying degrees of support for Nazi principles. It is difficult to determine the extent of neo-Nazi organizations in the United States, because these groups are aware that public opinion concerning them is negative, and there are organizations dedicated to monitoring their activities (such as the Anti-Defamation League and Southern Poverty Law Center).

While a small minority of American neo-Nazis draw public attention, most operate underground, so they may recruit, organize and raise funds without interference or harassment. The American correctional system houses many white supremacist and neo-nazi prison gangs, but more often than not, white prisoners join said gangs for protection from the other prison gangs, and do not necessarily subscribe to the ideologies that political neo-Nazi groups tend to emphasize[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]. The United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, which allows political organizations great latitude in expressing Nazi, racist and anti-Semitic views. One notable event in the United States in which neo-Nazis were legally allowed to assemble is known as the Skokie Affair. American neo-Nazi groups often operate websites, occasionally stage public demonstrations, and maintain ties to groups in Europe and elsewhere[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন]. However, neo-Nazis are a tiny percentage of the national population. More often than not, neo-Nazis are outnumbered by counter-protesters at public demonstrations, and are quickly prosecuted for any crimes, such as hate crimes[তথ্যসূত্র প্রয়োজন].

লিগাল ইস্যুসম্পাদনা

Some American neo-Nazi groups incite violence, however it is sometimes difficult for authorities to implicate them in violence or illegality in any meaningful way. In this way, prominent neo-Nazis may inspire, incite or even order violent crimes without much fear that their involvement will be traced back to an official organization. One notable North American exception to this fact is The Order, which had members convicted of crimes such as racketeering, conspiracy, violating civil rights and sedition. Other exceptions are Matthew F. Hale of the World Church of the Creator, who was imprisoned for soliciting the murder of a federal judge; and Richard Butler of Aryan Nations, which lost a $6.2 million dollar lawsuit after Aryan Nations members opened fire on a passing vehicle. Aryan Nations has since lost its headquarters and paramilitary training grounds, and has split into three separate organizations.

নব্য নাৎসীবাদী সংগঠনসমূহসম্পাদনা

The Americasসম্পাদনা

স্ক্যান্ডিনেভিয়াসম্পাদনা

বৃটিশ যুক্তরাজ্যসম্পাদনা

অন্যান্য ইউরোপীয় দেশসম্পাদনা

অন্যান্য মহাদেশসম্পাদনা

নব্য নাৎসী ব্যান্ডসম্পাদনা

গ্রন্থ ও রচনাপঞ্জিসম্পাদনা

প্রাথমিক উৎসাবলিসম্পাদনা

শিক্ষায়তনিক জরিপসম্পাদনা

তথ্যসূত্রসম্পাদনা

  1. Police: Israeli neo-Nazi ring busted, Associated Press, September 9, 2007
  2. Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War Against The Jews, 1933–1945. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975.
  3. Wolfgang Benz in Dimension des Volksmords: Die Zahl der Jüdischen Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Munich: Deutscher Taschebuch Verlag, 1991). Israel Gutman, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Macmillan Reference Books; Reference edition (October 1, 1995)
  4. Hilberg, Raul. The destruction of the European Jews (Yale Univ. Press, 2003, c1961).
  5. Yisrael Gutman, Michael Berenbaum, Raul Hilberg, Franciszek Piper, Yehuda Bauer, Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, Indiana University Press, 1998, p.71.
  6. Gilbert, Martin, Atlas of the Holocaust, New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc, 1993.
  7. Brigitte Bailer-Galanda/Wolfgang Neugebauer. (1996). 'Incorrigibly Right - Right-Wing Extremists, "Revisionists" and Anti-Semites in Austrian Politics Today'. Vienna-New York.
  8. De nouvelles découvertes, La Libre Belgique, 8 September 2006 (ফরাসি)
  9. Mandats d'arrêts confirmés pour les néo-nazis, Le Soir, 13 September 2006 (ফরাসি)
  10. Les néonazis voulaient déstabiliser le pays, Le Soir, Jeudi 7 septembre 2006 (ফরাসি)
  11. Un groupe terroriste néonazi démantelé[স্থায়ীভাবে অকার্যকর সংযোগ], Le Nouvel Observateur, 8 septembre 2006 (ফরাসি)
  12. La Belgique démantèle un groupe néonazi préparant des attentats আর্কাইভইজে আর্কাইভকৃত ৪ জুন ২০১২ তারিখে, Le Monde, 7 septembre 2006 (ফরাসি)
  13. Des militaires néonazis voulaient commettre des attentats, RTL Belgique, 8 septembre 2006 (ফরাসি)
  14. Des militaires néonazis voulaient déstabiliser la Belgique par des attentats[স্থায়ীভাবে অকার্যকর সংযোগ], AFP, 08/09/06, 07h12 (ফরাসি)
  15. La Belgique découvre, stupéfaite, un complot néonazi au sein de son armée[স্থায়ীভাবে অকার্যকর সংযোগ], AFP, 08/09/06, 12h01. (ফরাসি)
  16. Un réseau terroriste de militaires néonazis démantelé en Belgique ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১১ জানুয়ারি ২০০৮ তারিখে, Le Monde, September 8, 2006 (ফরাসি)
  17. "Blood And Homeland": Eugenics And Racial Nationalism in Central And Southeast Europe, 1900-1940 edited by Marius Turda, Paul Weindling Published 2006 Central European University Press Rory Yeomans article: Of "Yugoslav Barbarians" and Croatian Gentlemen Scholars: Nationalist Ideology and Racial Anthropology in Interwar Yugoslavia
  18. Nationalism and National Policy in Independent State of Croatia by Irina Ognyanova (1941-1945) [১]
  19. Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations by Kurt Jonassohn, Karin Solveig Björnson Transaction Publishers 1998, page 279
    To further legitimize the claim that Croats constituted a distinct nation, entitled to their own state, Starcevic revived archaic usages and invented new words to artificially separate a Croatian literary language from the common Serbo-Croatian linguistic stock. It is interesting to note that Starcevic's ideas were later advocated by Ante Pavelic and the Ustashi
  20. Croatia: A Nation Forged in War by Marcus Tanner, Yale University Press 1997, Page 106:
    Pavelic claimed Starcevic was the spiritual father of the Ustashe-run Independent State of Croatia (NDH)
  21. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  22. http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/DGB4V0MCGNFLU49E.pdf
  23. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ২৯ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  24. http://www.iwpr.net/?p=bcr&s=f&o=246286&apc_state=henibcr1999
  25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3605236.stm
  26. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ২৭ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০১৩ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  27. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ১১ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  28. http://www.index.hr/clanak.aspx?id=279919
  29. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ১০ অক্টোবর ২০০৬ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  30. http://www.index.hr/clanak.aspx?id=253042
  31. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ৭ জানুয়ারি ২০০৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  32. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ৭ জানুয়ারি ২০০৮ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  33. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ২৭ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  34. http://www.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeno/2006/1706.htm
  35. Wiesenthal Center Welcomes Opening of Investigation by Austrian Authorities of the Display of Fascist Ustasha Symbols at Recent Bleiburg Gathering [২] ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১১ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ তারিখে
  36. Austrija pokrenula istragu o ustaskim obiljezjima u Bleiburgu [৩] (Croatian)
  37. Zuroff Mesiću: Gnušamo se ustaških simbola na Thompsonovu koncertu [৪] (Croatian)
  38. Margelov institut traži opoziv ministra Kirina zbog Thompsonovog koncerta [৫] (Croatian)
  39. Nazi hunters slam singer’s concert
  40. Nazi hunter raps 'fascist' Croatian rock concert
  41. Jews slam Croatia's failure to condemn 'Nazi' concert [৬] ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ২৫ জুন ২০০৭ তারিখে
  42. Stratégies et pratiques du mouvement nationaliste-révolutionnaire français : départs, desseins et destin d'Unité Radicale (1989-2002) ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ২৯ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০০৭ তারিখে, Le Banquet, n°19, 2004 (ফরাসি)
  43. http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/swiat/1,34180,3354654.html
  44. http://www.statistik.sachsen.de/wahlen/allg/Seite_1.htm
  45. Michas, Takis;"Unholy Alliance", Texas A&M University Press: Eastern European Studies (College Station, Tex.) pp. 22 [৭]
  46. "Israeli 'neo-Nazi gang' arrested"। BBC। ৯ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০০৭। 
  47. Martin Asser (১০ সেপ্টেম্বর ২০০৭)। "Israeli anger over 'Nazi' group"। BBC। 
  48. Aron Heller (সেপ্টেম্বর ৯, ২০০৭)। "Police Break Up Israeli Neo-Nazi Ring"। Associated Press। [স্থায়ীভাবে অকার্যকর সংযোগ]
  49. Luke Harding (২০০৭-০৮-১৬)। "Student arrested over Russian neo-Nazi 'execution' video"। The Guardian। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২০০৭-০৮-১৬ 
  50. Neonacizam, fašizam i desni ekstremizam u Nemačkoj i Srbiji: sličnosti i razlike (in Serbian), centar za nove medije_kuda.org
  51. "Nacionalni stroj" pred sudom, BBC Serbian.com, January 9, 2006
  52. Serbia: Neo-Nazi Vandals Post Message on Adventist Church, Adventist News Network, July 12, 2007
  53. Neonacizam u Srbiji ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১৫ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ তারিখে, BBC Serbian.com, November 11, 2005
  54. "Blood and Honor, official web site"। ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 
  55. "Bela nadmoć" i "Krv i čast" ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ তারিখে, Patriot Online
  56. [ http://www.crnps.org.yu/xdoc/arhivavesti/hitlerjugend.htm ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১১ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ তারিখে Hitlerjugend sa gitarama], IMC Beograd, June 25, 2005
  57. State Dept Yugoslavia Report – Roma ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১৮ ডিসেম্বর ২০০৭ তারিখে, RomNews Network Community, 2000
  58. A video of the violence at the Gay Pride event in Belgrade ওয়েব্যাক মেশিনে আর্কাইভকৃত ১৪ অক্টোবর ২০১০ তারিখে, Google Video
  59. [ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3297266,00.html Skinheads attack 2 Israelis in Belgrade], Ynet News, August 29, 2006
  60. "সংরক্ষণাগারভুক্ত অনুলিপি"। ১ ডিসেম্বর ২০০৫ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ অক্টোবর ২০০৭ 

বহিঃসংযোগসম্পাদনা